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Table 3 Prevalence of ACE subtypes and adolescent violence (%)

From: Childhood adversity subtypes and violence victimization and perpetration among early adolescents in Shanghai, China

  Total Boys Girls P
  N = 1700  N = 865  N = 835
Any category reported 77.76 79.08 76.41 0.186
Variable-centered subtypes
Abuse 61.29 63.01 59.52 0.140
  Emotional abuse 56.94 56.26 57.64 0.579
  Physical abuse 38.15 39.21 37.06 0.375
  Sexual abuse 8.18 9.94 6.35 0.007
Neglect 64.12 64.39 63.83 0.810
  Emotional neglect 51.76 49.02 54.61 0.021
  Physical neglect 38.12 43.98 32.15 < 0.001
Household dysfunction 18.24 19.65 16.77 0.123
  Parental substance abuse 3.57 5.01 2.11 0.002
  Parental emotional distress 8.32 8.25 7.38 0.172
  Mother treated violently 5.19 4.61 5.79 0.281
  Parental incarceration 2.36 1.91 2.82 0.225
  Household instability 7.18 7.05 7.31 0.840
Person-centered subtypes
  Class 1 – low ACEs 50.23 49.94 50.54 0.820
  Class2 – high neglect and abuse 42.06 42.66 41.44
  Class 3 – high ACEs 7.71 8.02 7.40
School bullying
  Victimization 36.59 42.43 30.54 < 0.001
  Perpetration 7.06 8.79 5.27 0.005
  Victim-perpetrator 5.82 7.51 4.07 0.002
  1. Abbreviation: ACE adverse childhood experience