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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of participants from PREBONE-KIDS study (N=243)

From: Factors associated with bone health status of Malaysian pre-adolescent children in the PREBONE-Kids Study

  Total (n=243) Boys (n= 127) Girls (n=116) p-value*
Age 10.1 ± 1.0 10.2 ± 0.9 10.0 ± 1.0 0.122
Ethnicity
 Malay 220 (90.5) 110(86.6) 110 (94.8)  
 Indian 23 (9.5) 17 (13.4) 6 (5.2)
Tanner stage
 Stage 1 230 (94.7) 125 (98.4) 105 (90.5)  
 Stage 2 13 (5.3) 2 (1.6) 11 (9.5)
Weight (kg) 34.0 ± 12.1 34.7 ± 13.3 33.1 ± 10.8 0.292
Height (cm) 135.8 ± 9.1 136.1 ± 8.9 135.4 ± 9.5 0.580
BMI (kg/m2) 18.0 ± 4.5 18.3 ± 4.8 17.7 ± 4.2 0.332
BMI-for-age Z-score 0.187 ± 1.693 0.321 ± 1.742 0.040 ± 1.632 0.198
BMI Z-score classification, n (%)
 Thinness 21 (8.7) 9 (7.1) 12 (10.3)  
 Normal 142 (58.4) 74 (58.3) 67 (57.8)
 Overweight 37 (15.2) 18 (14.2) 21 (18.1)
 Obese 43 (17.7) 26 (20.5) 16 (13.8)
Bone parameters
 Lumbar Spine (LS)
  Area (cm2) 29.7 ± 4.2 30.0 ± 4.1 29.3 ± 4.3 0.182
  BMC (g) 21.7 ± 5.2 21.6 ± 4.7 21.9 ± 5.7 0.725
  BMD (g/cm2) 0.725 ± 0.091 0.715 ± 0.081 0.736 ± 0.100 0.064
 Total Body (TB)
  Area (cm2) 1462.0 ± 184.6 1480.5 ± 188.3 1441.8 ± 179.0 0.102
  BMC (g) 1129.5 ± 231.6 1160.4 ± 237.9 1095.6 ± 220.6 0.029
  BMD (g/cm2) 0.768 ± 0.075 0.780 ± 0.075 0.754 ± 0.072 0.006
  BMD z-score 0.789 ± 0.960 0.890 ± 0.921 0.678 ± 0.994 0.087
 Total body less head (TBLH)
  Area(cm2) 1234.5 ± 183.7 1251.0 ± 187.8 1216.5 ± 178.2 0.143
  BMC(g) 815.5 ± 220.3 836.6 ± 231.3 792.4 ± 206.2 0.118
  BMD (g/cm2) 0.650 ± 0.086 0.658 ± 0.088 0.642 ± 0.082 0.140
Body composition
 LM (kg) 21.79 ± 5.29 22.50 ± 5.40 21.00 ± 5.07 0.026
 FM (kg) 10.93 ± 7.08 11.00 ± 7.98 10.85 ± 5.98 0.876
 BF (%) 29.87 ± 8.44 28.82 ± 9.17 31.06 ± 7.39 0.035
Serum 25(OH)D (nmol/L) 43.9 ± 14.5 50.3 ± 13.7 36.8 ± 11.9 <0.001
Energy (Kcal) 1457 ± 450
(IQR: 1129 - 1711)
1543 ± 463
(IQR: 1213 - 1778)
1363 ± 417
(IQR: 1071 - 1574)
0.002
Protein intake 61.4 ± 21.6
(IQR: 48.2 – 69.7)
65.7 ± 23.3
(IQR: 50.8 – 72.8)
56.6 ± 18.7
(IQR: 44.0 – 66.6)
0.001
Calcium intake (mg) 349 ± 180
(IQR: 218 – 459)
356 ± 166
(IQR: 217 – 468)
341 ±194
(IQR: 218 – 452)
0.510
Vitamin D (μg) 1.5 ± 1.6
(IQR: 0.3 – 2.2)
1.5 ± 1.6
(IQR: 0.4 – 2.3)
1.4 ± 1.6
(IQR: 0.2 – 2.1)
0.638
PA level (MET scores) 822 ± 447 961 ± 502 670 ± 317 <0.001
  1. Abbreviation: BMI body mass index, LM lean mass, FM Fat mass, BF body fat, 25(OH)D 25 hydroxyvitamin D, PA physical activity, IQR interquartile range, MET metabolic equivalent task
  2. * Student’s t-test and p<0.05 considered significant