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Table 7 The effects of paternal childcare on behavioral problems in 5.5 year-old girls; result of the logistic regression model

From: Paternal childcare in early childhood and problematic behavior in children: a population-based prospective study in Japan

  Behavioral problem Unable to listen without fidgeting Unable to focus on a specific task Unable to be patient Unable to express emotions appropriately Unable to behave in a group situation Unable to keep promises
OR   95%CI OR   95%CI OR   95%CI OR   95%CI OR   95%CI OR   95%CI OR   95%CI
Frequency of feeding (ref. not at all)
 rarely 1.05 0.92 1.18 0.96 0.79 1.16 0.95 0.79 1.15 0.96 0.82 1.11 1.02 0.88 1.18 0.87 0.65 1.15 1.15 0.97 1.36
 sometimes 0.94 0.84 1.06 0.96 0.80 1.16 0.86 0.72 1.03 0.87 0.76 1.01 0.96 0.83 1.11 0.89 0.68 1.16 1.04 0.88 1.22
 always 1.01 0.85 1.19 0.85 0.66 1.10 0.97 0.76 1.24 0.74 0.60 0.91 1.05 0.86 1.29 1.10 0.75 1.61 1.15 0.92 1.44
  (p for trend) 0.23 (p for trend) 0.38 (p for trend) 0.22 (p for trend) 0.002 (p for trend) 0.78 (p for trend) 0.92 (p for trend) 0.86
Frequency of changing diaper (ref. not at all)
 rarely 0.99 0.88 1.13 0.95 0.78 1.15 0.91 0.76 1.11 0.87 0.75 1.01 1.06 0.91 1.24 1.12 0.84 1.50 1.05 0.89 1.24
 sometimes 0.93 0.83 1.05 0.90 0.76 1.08 0.95 0.80 1.14 0.85 0.74 0.98 0.97 0.84 1.13 1.00 0.76 1.32 0.99 0.85 1.16
 always 0.97 0.81 1.15 0.88 0.68 1.14 0.97 0.75 1.25 0.74 0.60 0.92 1.13 0.92 1.40 1.08 0.71 1.64 1.00 0.80 1.25
  (p for trend) 0.21 (p for trend) 0.22 (p for trend) 0.92 (p for trend) 0.01 (p for trend) 0.97 (p for trend) 0.83 (p for trend) 0.73
Frequency of bathing (ref. not at all)
 rarely 0.95 0.79 1.15 1.11 0.84 1.48 1.03 0.78 1.36 0.91 0.73 1.15 0.95 0.76 1.19 1.09 0.72 1.63 0.84 0.66 1.08
 sometimes 0.91 0.77 1.07 0.86 0.67 1.10 0.87 0.68 1.11 0.92 0.76 1.12 0.93 0.77 1.13 0.82 0.57 1.17 0.82 0.66 1.01
 always 0.88 0.74 1.05 0.82 0.63 1.07 0.88 0.69 1.15 0.92 0.75 1.14 0.92 0.75 1.14 0.76 0.52 1.12 0.93 0.75 1.16
  (p for trend) 0.13 (p for trend) 0.01 (p for trend) 0.19 (p for trend) 0.67 (p for trend) 0.46 (p for trend) 0.03 (p for trend) 0.67
Frequency of putting the child to sleep (ref. not at all)
 rarely 1.02 0.92 1.13 1.01 0.86 1.19 0.93 0.80 1.08 0.97 0.86 1.10 1.09 0.97 1.24 1.02 0.80 1.29 0.99 0.86 1.13
 sometimes 1.03 0.93 1.14 1.20 1.03 1.40 0.87 0.75 1.02 0.93 0.82 1.05 1.14 1.01 1.29 1.05 0.83 1.33 0.95 0.83 1.09
 always 0.96 0.83 1.11 1.04 0.83 1.30 0.88 0.71 1.10 0.90 0.76 1.08 1.07 0.90 1.28 0.86 0.60 1.24 0.89 0.73 1.08
  (p for trend) 0.94 (p for trend) 0.08 (p for trend) 0.11 (p for trend) 0.16 (p for trend) 0.14 (p for trend) 0.78 (p for trend) 0.21
Frequency of playing with the child at home (ref. not at all)
 rarely 0.88 0.54 1.43 0.95 0.48 1.89 0.86 0.44 1.65 0.63 0.38 1.06 1.27 0.70 2.32 0.89 0.36 2.23 0.97 0.52 1.81
 sometimes 0.86 0.54 1.35 0.75 0.39 1.44 0.72 0.39 1.34 0.54 0.33 0.88 1.10 0.62 1.95 0.66 0.28 1.56 0.97 0.54 1.75
 always 0.75 0.47 1.20 0.64 0.33 1.25 0.67 0.36 1.25 0.48 0.29 0.78 0.96 0.54 1.70 0.56 0.23 1.36 0.83 0.46 1.50
  (p for trend) 0.002 (p for trend) 0.001 (p for trend) 0.05 (p for trend) < 0.001 (p for trend) 0.003 (p for trend) 0.02 (p for trend) 0.01
Frequency of taking the child outside (ref. not at all)
 rarely 0.78 0.63 0.97 0.85 0.62 1.17 0.99 0.71 1.36 0.85 0.66 1.09 0.90 0.70 1.15 0.76 0.49 1.17 0.96 0.73 1.25
 sometimes 0.75 0.62 0.92 0.82 0.61 1.11 0.95 0.70 1.29 0.89 0.70 1.13 0.83 0.65 1.05 0.69 0.46 1.04 0.80 0.62 1.03
 always 0.71 0.57 0.89 0.79 0.57 1.11 0.90 0.64 1.26 0.82 0.63 1.07 0.77 0.59 1.00 0.73 0.46 1.16 0.67 0.51 0.90
  (p for trend) 0.01 (p for trend) 0.24 (p for trend) 0.38 (p for trend) 0.39 (p for trend) 0.03 (p for trend) 0.24 (p for trend) < 0.001
  1. aAdjusted covariates (number of siblings, living with grandparent(s), paternal and maternal age at child birth, paternal and maternal education, annual household income, maternal childcare hours on weekdays or weekends at 18 months old, and the total scores of maternal involvement in caregiving, gestational age, multiple birth, child’s history of hospital admission or visits for congenital diseases, child’s temperament), and parental spending hours with children.
  2. bBold values denote statistical significance at the p < 0.05
  3. OR Odds ratio; CI Confidence interval