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Table 5 The effects of paternal childcare-hour and caregiving score on behavioral problems in 5.5 year-old children; result of the logistic regression model

From: Paternal childcare in early childhood and problematic behavior in children: a population-based prospective study in Japan

  Crude model Model 1 Model 2
OR 95%CI OR 95%CI OR 95%CI
Boys
 Childcare-hour on weekdays (ref. <  0.5 h)
  0.5 to 1.9 h 0.91 0.78 1.05 0.82 0.70 0.96 0.82 0.70 0.96
   ≥ 2 h 0.87 0.75 1.01 0.70 0.60 0.82 0.71 0.60 0.84
  (p for trend) 0.07 (p for trend) <  0.001 (p for trend) < 0.001
 Childcare-hour on weekends (ref. <  4 h)
  4 to 5.9 h 0.93 0.82 1.05 0.92 0.81 1.05 0.96 0.84 1.10
   ≥ 6 h 0.79 0.72 0.87 0.81 0.73 0.90 0.86 0.76 0.96
  (p for trend) < 0.001 (p for trend) < 0.001 (p for trend) 0.004
 Total caregiving score (ref. low)
  middle 0.92 0.83 1.02 0.87 0.78 0.97 0.98 0.87 1.10
  high 0.86 0.76 0.98 0.76 0.67 0.88 0.92 0.79 1.07
  (p for trend) 0.03 (p for trend) < 0.001 (p for trend) 0.29
Girls
 Childcare-hour on weekdays (ref. < 0.5 h)
  0.5 to 1.9 h 0.94 0.81 1.09 0.90 0.77 1.05 0.91 0.78 1.06
   ≥ 2 h 0.95 0.82 1.11 0.81 0.70 0.95 0.83 0.71 0.99
  (p for trend) (p for trend) 0.001 (p for trend) 0.02
 Childcare-hour on weekends (ref. <  4 h)
  4 to 5.9 h 0.99 0.88 1.12 1.00 0.88 1.14 1.05 0.91 1.20
   ≥ 6 h 0.79 0.72 0.87 0.85 0.76 0.94 0.89 0.79 1.00
  (p for trend) < 0.001 (p for trend) < 0.001 (p for trend) 0.01
 Total caregiving score (ref. low)
  middle 0.91 0.82 1.00 0.85 0.76 0.94 0.91 0.81 1.01
  high 0.90 0.78 1.02 0.77 0.67 0.89 0.88 0.75 1.03
  (p for trend) 0.10 (p for trend) < 0.001 (p for trend) 0.11
  1. aModel 1 adjusted covariates variables (number of siblings, living with grandparent(s), paternal and maternal age at child birth, paternal and maternal education, annual household income, maternal childcare-hours on weekdays or weekends at 18 months old, and the total scores of maternal involvement in caregiving, multiple birth, gestational age, child’s history of hospital admission or visits for congenital diseases, child’s temperament).
  2. bModel 2 adjusted for Model 1 and other veriables of paternal childcare.
  3. cBold values denote statistical significance at the p < 0.05
  4. OR Odds ratio; CI Confidence interval