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Table 3 The distributions of paternal childcare

From: Paternal childcare in early childhood and problematic behavior in children: a population-based prospective study in Japan

  Total
n = 27,870
Boy
n = 14,429
Girl
n = 13,441
p value*
No. or mean % or SE No. or mean % or SE No. or mean % or SE
Childcare hour on weekdays (hour)
  <  0.5 4747 17.0 2456 17 2291 17.0 0.89
 0.5–0.9 3654 13.1 1905 13.2 1749 13.0  
 1–1.9 6104 21.9 3141 21.8 2963 22.0  
 2–3.9 9432 33.8 4864 33.7 4568 34.0  
 4–5.9 3348 12.0 1749 12.1 1599 11.9  
  ≥ 6 585 2.1 314 2.2 271 2.0  
Childcare hour on weekends (hour)
  <  0.5 299 1.1 158 1.1 141 1.0 0.77
 0.5–0.9 470 1.7 243 1.7 227 1.7  
 1–1.9 1027 3.7 521 3.6 506 3.8  
 2–3.9 2521 9.0 1326 9.2 1195 8.9  
 4–5.9 4014 14.4 2044 14.2 1970 14.7  
  ≥ 6 19,539 70.1 10,137 70.3 9402 70.0  
 Total caregiving score (range: 0 to 18) 11.1 0.02 11.2 0.03 11.0 0.03 <  0.001
Frequency of feeding
 not at all 3336 12.0 1733 12.0 1603 11.9 0.28
 rarely 7346 26.4 3738 25.9 3608 26.8  
 sometimes 14,593 52.4 7586 52.6 7007 52.1  
 always 2595 9.3 1372 9.5 1223 9.1  
Frequency of changing diaper
 not at all 3416 12.3 1763 12.2 1653 12.3 0.72
 rarely 6571 23.6 3396 23.5 3175 23.6  
 sometimes 15,631 56.1 8078 56.0 7553 56.2  
 always 2252 8.1 1192 8.3 1060 7.9  
Frequency of bathing
 not at all 1337 4.8 612 4.2 725 5.4 <  0.001
 rarely 2612 9.4 1291 8.9 1321 9.8  
 sometimes 13,954 50.1 7181 49.8 6773 50.4  
 always 9967 35.8 5345 37.0 4622 34.4  
Frequency of putting the child to sleep
 not at all 5601 20.1 2703 18.7 2898 21.6 <  0.001
 rarely 8268 29.7 4218 29.2 4050 30.1  
 sometimes 10,950 39.3 5803 40.2 5147 38.3  
 always 3051 10.9 1705 11.8 1346 10.0  
Frequency of playing with the child at home
 not at all 165 0.6 82 0.6 83 0.6 0.61
 rarely 1126 4.0 582 4.0 544 4.0  
 sometimes 13,846 49.7 7120 49.3 6726 50.0  
 always 12,733 45.7 6645 46.1 6088 45.3  
Frequency of taking the child outside
 not at all 917 3.3 457 3.2 460 3.4 <  0.001
 rarely 3717 13.3 1826 12.7 1891 14.1  
 sometimes 18,882 67.8 9805 68.0 9077 67.5  
 always 4354 15.6 2341 16.2 2013 15.0  
  1. SE Standard error, * Chi-square test