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Table 2 Characteristics of the participants

From: Paternal childcare in early childhood and problematic behavior in children: a population-based prospective study in Japan

  Total Boy Girl
n = 27,870 n = 14,429 n = 13,441
No. or mean % or SD No. or mean % or SD No. or mean % or SD
Gestational age (week)
  < 37 1277 4.6 764 5.3 513 3.8
 37–41 26,357 94.6 13,542 93.9 12,815 95.3
  ≥ 42 236 0.8 123 0.9 113 0.8
Birth weight (g)
  ≥ 2500 25,616 91.9 13,384 92.8 12,232 91.0
  < 2500 2254 8.1 1045 7.2 1209 9.0
 Paternal age at child birth (years old) 31.7 5.3 31.8 5.3 31.7 5.3
  < 25 1822 6.5 922 6.4 900 6.7
 25–29 8060 28.9 4151 28.8 3909 29.1
 30–34 10,236 36.7 5332 37.0 4904 36.5
 35–39 5583 20.0 2887 20.0 2696 20.1
 40+ 2105 7.6 1100 7.6 1005 7.5
 unknown 64 0.2 37 0.3 27 0.2
 Maternal age at child birth (years old) 29.7 4.2 29.7 4.2 29.7 4.2
  < 25 2843 10.2 1465 10.2 1378 10.3
 25–29 11,059 39.7 5747 39.8 5312 39.5
 30–34 10,414 37.4 5402 37.4 5012 37.3
 35–39 3204 11.5 1629 11.3 1575 11.7
  ≥ 40 350 1.3 186 1.3 164 1.2
Paternal education
 less than high school 1936 6.9 1019 7.1 917 6.8
 high school 10,773 38.7 5588 38.7 5185 38.6
 some college 4461 16.0 2308 16.0 2153 16.0
 college or higher 10,700 38.4 5514 38.2 5186 38.6
Maternal education
 less than high school 1076 3.9 539 3.7 537 4.0
 high school 10,470 37.6 5414 37.5 5056 37.6
 some college 12,074 43.3 6330 43.9 5744 42.7
 college or higher 4250 15.2 2146 14.9 2104 15.7
Number of siblings
 none 12,772 45.8 6488 45.0 6284 46.8
 1 11,048 39.6 5841 40.5 5207 38.7
  ≥ 2 4050 14.5 2100 14.6 1950 14.5
 Living with grandparent(s) (answer = yes) 5866 21.0 3065 21.2 2801 20.8
Annual household income (JPY million)
  <  4 7966 28.6 4150 28.8 3816 28.4
 4–5.9 10,811 38.8 5576 38.6 5235 38.9
 6–7.9 5544 19.9 2845 19.7 2699 20.1
 8–9.9 2099 7.5 1127 7.8 972 7.2
  ≥ 10 1450 5.2 731 5.1 719 5.3
Multiple birth
 singleton 27,314 98.0 14,129 97.9 13,185 98.1
 twin 546 2.0 295 2.0 251 1.9
 triplet 10 0.04 5 0.03 5 0.03
 History of hospital visits for child’s congenital diseases (answer = yes) 624 2.2 344 2.4 280 2.1
 History of hospital admissions for child’s congenital diseases (answer = yes) 267 1.0 164 1.1 103 0.8
Child’s temperament (answer = yes)
 active 14,737 52.9 7405 51.3 7332 54.5
 shy of strangers 2891 10.4 1181 8.2 1710 12.7
 playful 10,360 37.2 6182 42.8 4178 31.1
 short temper 4551 16.3 2445 16.9 2106 15.7
 careful 4172 15.0 2323 16.1 1849 13.8
 aggressive 12,169 43.7 5254 36.4 6915 51.4
 timid 2084 7.5 1476 10.2 608 4.5
 obedient 6513 23.4 3603 25.0 2910 21.7
 competitive 8094 29.0 3700 25.6 4394 32.7
 independent 12,378 44.4 5465 37.9 6913 51.4
 stubborn 3994 14.3 2361 16.4 1633 12.1
 full of curiosity 11,305 40.6 5967 41.4 5338 39.7
 fickle 4346 15.6 2164 15.0 2182 16.2
 restless 6318 22.7 3845 26.6 2473 18.4
 shy 9400 33.7 4663 32.3 4737 35.2
 spoilt 15,849 56.9 9150 63.4 6699 49.8
 easygoing 2142 7.7 1214 8.4 928 6.9
 impatient 1622 5.8 845 5.9 777 5.8
  1. SD Standard deviation