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Table 1 Sociodemographic characteristics and adversity measures of Mothers in the Pregnancy and Infant Development Study expressed as mean (standard deviation) for continuous variables and percentages for categorial variables

From: Pregnancy and Infant Development (PRIDE)—a preliminary observational study of maternal adversity and infant development

Individual Sociodemographic Indicators Baseline
n 53
Age, mean ± sd 21.8 (3.3)
Black, Non-Hispanic,% 61.2
Hispanic,% 5.5
 < High school,% 5.6
Father < high school,% 8 (15.1)
Unemployed,% 12.7
Annual Income < $15 k,% 24.5
Adversity and Protective Measures
ACEs 2.1 (1.8)
 ≥ 2ACEs, % 34.0
PSS4 5.7 (3.9)
PSS10 16.4 (8.4)
PES hassles 22.2 (5.9)
PES uplifts 13.8 (6.7)
PES frequency of hassles 9.2 (1.5)
PES frequency of uplifts 7.0 (2.3)
Ratio frequency hassles: uplifts 1.7 (1.4)
Ratio intensity hassles: uplifts 1.4 (0.6)
Cortisol a 6.1 (4.6)
PES/PSS combined
Low 2 (3.8)
Mid 47 (88.7)
High 4 (7.6)
Social Support
Appraisal 23.4 (5.4)
Belonging 22.1 (6.9)
Self-esteem 22.0 (4.6)
Tangible 22.1 (6.5)
an = 28
Community Level Sociodemographic Indicators
Assisted income, % 0.26 (0.14)
High school education, % 0.84 (0.08)
Median income, mean $ 38,287 (16,700)
No health insurance, % 0.14 (0.05)
Poverty, % 0.29 (0.16)
Vacant housing, % 0.16 (0.11)
Deprivation index 0.48 (0.13)
Distance to major roadways, miles 2,976 (3,370)
  1. aACE Adverse Childhood Experiences, PSS Perceived Stress Scale, PES Pregnancy Experiences Scale