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Table 1 Characteristics of children younger than 5 years of age living with HIV in rural Zambia

From: Treatment outcomes among children younger than five years living with HIV in rural Zambia, 2008–2018: a cohort study

  All ages Age at ART initiation  
  < 1 year 1 to < 2 years 2 to < 5 years  
N Median (IQR)b N Median (IQR)b N Median (IQR)b N Median (IQR)b p-valuea
AT STUDY ENROLMENT
 Age in years 381 1.6 (1.0, 2.5) 86 0.6 (0.5, 0.8) 144 1.4 (1.2, 1.6) 151 2.8 (2.1, 3.7) < 0.001
 Male sex, n (%) 381 194 (50.9) 86 53 (61.6) 144 75 (52.1) 151 66 (43.7) 0.03
 CD4+ T-cell % 314 19.6 (14.6, 26.2) 75 23.9 (14.6, 31.0) 116 19.1 (15.1, 24.6) 123 19.5 (13.2, 24.6) 0.23
 Hemoglobin 329 9.3 (8.4, 10.1) 74 9.1 (8.2, 10.0) 118 9.3 (8.4, 10.0) 137 9.5 (8.8, 10.4) 0.33
 Receiving ARTc n (%) 381 48 (12.6) 86 18 (20.9) 144 14 (9.7) 151 16 (10.6) 0.03
 Mother received ART for PMTCT, n (%) 380 69 (18.2) 85 26 (30.6) 144 27 (18.8) 151 16 (10.6) < 0.001
 Parent’s vital, n (%) status 380   85   144   151   0.31
  Both alive   348 (91.6)   82 (96.5)   131 (91.0)   135 (89.4)  
  One died   31 (8.2)   3 (3.5)   13 (9.0)   15 (9.9)  
  Both died   1 (0.3)   0 (0.0)   0 (0.0)   1 (0.7)  
 Primary caregiver, n (%) 380   85   144   151   0.006
  Parent   345 (90.8)   85 (100.0)   133 (92.4)   127 (84.1)  
  Grandparent   22 (5.8)   0 (0.0)   7 (4.9)   15 (9.9)  
  Aunt/Uncle   11 (2.9)   0 (0.0)   4 (2.8)   7 (4.6)  
  Other   2 (0.5)   0 (0.0)   0 (0.0)   2 (1.3)  
 Primary caregiver education, n (%) 372   85   141   146   0.43
  None   19 (5.1)   3 (3.5)   10 (7.1)   6 (4.1)  
  Primary   234 (62.9)   52 (61.2)   93 (66.0)   89 (61.0)  
  Secondary   118 (31.7)   30 (35.3)   37 (26.2)   51 (34.9)  
  Higher   1 (0.3)   0 (0.0)   1 (0.7)   0 (0.0)  
AT ART INITIATION
 Age in years 381 1.7 (1.0, 2.8) 86 0.7 (0.5, 0.8) 144 1.5 (1.3, 1.7) 151 3.0 (2.5, 4.1) < 0.001
 Year of ART initiation 381   86   144   151   0.55
  2008–2010   189 (49.6)   40 (46.5)   69 (47.9)   80 (53.0)  
  2011–2015   192 (50.4)   46 (53.5)   75 (52.1)   71 (47.0)  
 WAZd 362 −2.0 (−3.0, −0.9) 80 − 1.5 (− 2.6, − 0.1) 140 −2.2 (− 3.4, − 1.1) 142 −2.1 (− 2.8, − 1.1) 0.03
  Underweighte, n (%)   178 (49.2)   30 (37.5)   76 (54.3)   72 (50.7) 0.05
 HAZd 334 −3.1 (−4.2, − 2.0) 76 − 2.5 (− 4.4, − 1.6) 129 −3.3 (− 4.4, − 2.3) 129 −3.1 (− 4.0, − 2.2) 0.38
  Stunted f, n (%)   252 (75.4)   49 (64.5)   101 (78.3)   102 (79.1) 0.04
 CD4%d 329 18.3 (13.0, 24.2) 67 19.1 (14.8, 28.1) 128 18.6 (13.4, 24.2) 134 17.2 (12.1, 22.2) 0.29
  Severe immune deficiencyg, n (%)   175 (53.2)   36 (53.7)   73 (57.0)   66 (49.3) 0.45
 Hemoglobind 337 9.4 (8.4, 10.4) 70 9.1 (8.2, 9.9) 129 9.5 (8.5, 10.3) 138 9.7 (8.8, 10.5) 0.03
 Viral loadd,h 168 5.8 (5.2, 5.9) 53 5.9 (5.2, 6.1) 54 5.9 (5.4, 5.9) 61 5.5 (5.1, 5.9) 0.01
 ART regimen, n (%) 372   84   142   146   < 0.001
  AZT/3TC/EFV   56 (15.1)   5 (6.0)   18 (12.7)   33 (22.6)  
  AZT/3TC/NVP   82 (22.0)   24 (28.6)   31 (21.8)   27 (18.5)  
  D4T/3TC/EFV   50 (13.4)   6 (7.1)   27 (19.0)   17 (11.6)  
  D4T/3TC/NVP   104 (28.0)   29 (34.5)   30 (21.1)   45 (30.8)  
  Other   80 (21.5)   20 (23.8)   36 (25.4)   24 (16.4)  
  1. 3TC Lamivudine, ART antiretroviral therapy, AZT Zidovudine, D4T Stavudine, EFV Efavirenz, HAZ height-for-age z-score, IQR interquartile range, NVP Nevirapine, PMTCT prevention of mother to child transmission, WAZ weight-for-age z-score
  2. a p-value comparing across age groups using a Pearson’s chi-squared test for categorical variables and a Kruskal Wallis test for continuous variables
  3. b Unless otherwise specified
  4. c Some children entered the study already receiving ART
  5. d Most recent value available within the 3 months prior to ART initiation
  6. e Underweight: Weight-for-age Z-score less than −2
  7. f Stunted: height-for-age Z-score less than − 2
  8. g Severe Immunodeficiency: Defined according to CD4+ T-cell percentage/count threshold by age (< 12 months: 25% or < 1500 cells/mm3; 12–35 months: < 20% or < 750 cells/mm3; 36–59 months: < 15% or < 350 cells/mm3) based on the 2006 WHO Guidelines [16]
  9. h Viral load in log10