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Table 1 Clinical characteristics of the study sample (n = 163)

From: Optimizing parenteral nutrition to achieve an adequate weight gain according to the current guidelines in preterm infants with birth weight less than 1500 g: a prospective observational study

Characteristic Value
Sex, n (%)
 Female 75 (46.0)
 Male 88 (54.0)
Gestational age at birth, weeks 29.6 (28.3, 31.4)
Gestational age at parenteral nutrition discontinuation, weeks 34.3 (32.9, 36.0)
5-min Apgar score, n (%)
 ≥ 7 154 (94.5)
 < 7 9 (5.5)
Birth anthropometrics
 Birth weight, g 1150 (990, 1270)
 Length, cm 34 (28, 38)
 Head circumference, cm 28 (26, 36)
Small for gestational age, n (%) 39 (23.9)
Parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis, n (%) 14 (8.6)
Sepsis, n (%) 14 (8.6)
Surgical conditions
 Necrotizing enterocolitis, n (%) 12 (7.4)
 Duodenal atresia, n (%) 1 (0.6)
 Congenital megacolon, n (%) 2 (1.2)
 Patent ductus arteriosus, n (%) 3 (1.8)
 Gastric perforation, n (%) 1 (0.6)
 Others a, n (%) 3 (1.8)
Ventilator, days 6 (1, 19)
Maximum weight loss, % 8.0 (5.0,11.0)
Days to maximum weight loss, days 5 (4, 6)
Poor weight gain outcome after parenteral nutrition, n (%) 101 (62.0)
Extrauterine growth restriction, n (%) 136 (83.4)
  1. a others including incarcerated inguinal hernia, anorectal fistula and urachal fistula. Poor weight gain outcome was defined as body weight below the 10th percentile for postmenstrual age, as plotted on the 2013 Fenton growth curves in this study. EUGR is diagnosed when weight is <10th percentile at discharge. Continuous variables are presented as median (interquartile)