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Table 2 Cox’s univariate analysis and Cox’s multivariate regression analysis for risk of breastfeeding interruption before 2 years of age

From: Risk factors for and protective factors against breastfeeding interruption before 2 years: a birth cohort study

Variables Crude HR (95%CI) Distal level
HRa (95%CI)
Distal intermediate level
HRa (95%CI)
Proximal intermediate level
HRa (95%CI)
Proximal level
HRa (95%CI)
Maternal white skin color 1.46 (1.23–1.73) 1.31 (1.10–1.56)    
Maternal age < 20 years 0.88 (0.74–1.05) 0.90 (0.74–1.09)    
Maternal schooling ≤8 years 0.80 (0.70–0.92) 0.92 (0.78–1.08)    
Primiparous mother 1.21 (1.05–1.38) 1.21 (1.05–1.40)    
Family income < 2 minimum wages 0.75 (0.65–0.85) 0.81 (0.71–0.94)    
Attendance to prenatal lecture/course on breastfeeding 0.84 (0.72–0.99) 0.92 (0.79–1.09)   
Smoking during pregnancy 0.99 (0.63–1.57) 1.21 (0.76–1.93)   
Public prenatal care funding 0.75 (0.65–0.86) 0.90 (0.76–1.06)   
Vaginal delivery 0.85 (0.74–0.97) 1.02 (0.86–1.21)  
Public hospital finding 0.77 (0.66–0.89) 0.90 (0.75–1.09)  
Breastfeeding in the first hour of life 0.96 (0.84–1.10) 0.99 (0.85–1.15)  
Rooming in at hospital 1.12 (0.87–1.44) 1.17 (0.90–1.52)  
Received guidance on breastfeeding at hospital 1.12 (0.94–1.33) 1.11 (0.93–1.33)  
Maternal expectation of breastfeeding duration < 12 months 0.95 (0.80–1.14) 0.94 (0.79–1.12)  
Birth weight < 2500 g 0.71 (0.51–1.01) 0.80 (0.56–1.12)  
Infant sex male 1.13 (0.99–1.30) 1.18 (1.03–1.35)  
Mother working outside the home at the time of breastfeeding interruption 1.07 (0.93–1.24) 1.52 (1.30–1.77)
Partner’s support and encouragement to breastfeeding 0.69 (0.52–0.91) 0.84 (0.61–1.16)
Cohabitation with child’s father 0.89 (0.74–1.07) 0.81 (0.67–1.00)
Use of a pacifier at the time of breastfeeding interruption 4.57 (3.96–5.28) 3.46 (2.98–4.01)
Mother-infant bed-sharing at the time of breastfeeding interruption 0.50 (0.43–0.59) 0.61 (0.52–0.73)
Breastfeeding on demand in the first month 0.51 (0.37–0.69) 0.64 (0.47–0.89)
Exclusive breastfeeding at 4 months 0.53 (0.44–0.64) 0.58 (0.48–0.70)
  1. 95%CI 95% confidence interval, HRa adjusted hazard ratio, HR hazard ratio