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Table 3 Comparison of the CSHQ, CARS, ABC, and SRS scores in ASD children with sleep disturbances stratified by different VA levels

From: RETRACTED ARTICLE: Vitamin A deficiency and sleep disturbances related to autism symptoms in children with autism spectrum disorder: a cross-sectional study

Variable Sleep disturbances
+ VAN (n = 115)
Sleep disturbances
+ MVAD (n = 152)
Sleep disturbances
+ VAD (n = 415)
P value a
CSHQ total score, mean (SD) 40.63 (2.58) 47.72 (2.99) 47.99 (3.47) < 0.001***
CARS score, % (n)
 Mild to moderate degree (30–36) 32.17 (37/115) 0 (0/149) 0 (0/418) 0.001***
 Severe degree (37–60) 67.83 (78/115) 100 (149/149) 100 (418/418)
ABC total score, mean (SD) 67.87 (5.78) 106.92 (23.30) 105.66 (22.10) < 0.001***
SRS total score, mean (SD) 99.64 (11.80) 152.53 (25.77) 148.63 (24.98) < 0.001***
  1. Abbreviations: ASD Autism spectrum disorder, CSHQ Childhood Sleep Habit Questionnaire, CARS Childhood Autism Rating Scale, ABC Autism Behavior Checklist, SRS Social Responsiveness Scale, VAN Vitamin A normal, MVAD Marginal vitamin A deficiency, VAD Vitamin A deficiency, SD Standard deviation
  2. ***P < 0.001
  3. aVAD with MVAD and VAN was recognized as significant by Least Significant Difference (LSD)(P < 0.001)