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Table 2 Comparison of VA levels and core symptoms in ASD children with and without sleep disturbances

From: RETRACTED ARTICLE: Vitamin A deficiency and sleep disturbances related to autism symptoms in children with autism spectrum disorder: a cross-sectional study

Variable Without sleep disturbancesa (n = 174) With sleep disturbancesa (n = 682) P value
VA levelsb
 VA levels, mean (SD) 1.04 (0.15) 0.60(0.27) < 0.001***
 VAN, % (n) 29.89 (52/174) 16.86 (115/682) < 0.001***
 MVAD, % (n) 70.11 (122/174) 22.29 (152/682)
 VAD, % (n) 0 (0/174) 60.85 (415/682)
CARS score, % (n)
 Mild to moderate degree (30–36) 54.60 (95/174) 5.43 (37/682) < 0.001***
 Severe degree (37–60) 45.40 (79/174) 94.57 (645/682)
ABC total score, mean (SD) 64.13 (7.77) 99.57 (25.05) < 0.001***
SRS total score, mean (SD) 91.55 (15.58) 141.24 (30.06) < 0.001***
  1. Abbreviations: ASD Autism spectrum disorder, VA Vitamin A, SD Standard deviation, CARS Childhood Autism Rating Scale, ABC Autism Behavior Checklist, SRS Social Responsiveness Scale, CSHQ Childhood Sleep Habit Questionnaire
  2. ***P < 0.001
  3. aThe individuals with total CSHQ scores below 41 were classified as without sleep disturbances; those with over 41 were classified as with sleep disturbances [22]
  4. bSerum retinol concentrations ≥1.05 μmol/L were defined as Vitamin A Normal (VAN); < 1.05 μmol/L and ≥ 0.7 μmol/L were defined as Marginal Vitamin A Deficiency (MVAD); < 0.7 μmol/L were defined as Vitamin A Deficiency (VAD) [29]