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Table 1 Comparison of groups for social background variables

From: RETRACTED ARTICLE: Vitamin A deficiency and sleep disturbances related to autism symptoms in children with autism spectrum disorder: a cross-sectional study

Variable TDC (n = 316) ASD (n = 856) P value
Sex, % (n)a,b
 Male 80.1 (253/316) 80.8 (692/856) 0.765
 Female 19.9 (63/316) 19.2 (164/856)
Age (years), mean (SD)
 Children 6.43 (0.96) 6.27 (2.80) 0.317
 Father 29.93 (5.27) 31.02 (2.39) < 0.001***
 Mother 27.98 (4.96) 28.82 (2.78) 0.005**
CSHQ total score, % (n) c 49.68 (157/316) 79.67 (682/856) < 0.001***
VA levels, mean (SD) 1.05 (0.13) 0.69 (0.33) < 0.001***
  1. Abbreviations: TDC Typically developing children, ASD Autism spectrum disorder, SD Standard deviation, CSHQ Childhood Sleep Habit Questionnaire, VA vitamin A
  2. **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001
  3. aSex ratio of male to female was 4.22:1 in ASD group and 4.02:1 in age- and sex-matched TDC group
  4. bObtained from two-sided t test (ANOVA)
  5. c Individuals in ASD and TDC cohorts in this study were consistent in age (4–10 years) according to Owens et al. [22]