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Table 6 Characteristics of newborns admitted to NICU (N = 2746)

From: Relationship between maternal vitamin D status in the first trimester of pregnancy and maternal and neonatal outcomes: a retrospective single center study

Maternal characteristics and Pregnant outcomes Admission to neonatal intensive care unit χ2/Z/
P- value
Without (N = 20,648) With (N = 2746)
25(OH)D levels (Mean ± SD) 43.283 ± 15.893 42.319 ± 15.183 −2.590
.010&
25(OH)D levels (N%)    12.200
.002*
<50a 13,778 (66.7) 1918 (69.8)  
50–74.9a 6220 (30.1) 761 (27.7)  
≥75a 650 (3.1) 67(2.4)  
Maternal Age(years)
(Mean ± SD)
30.5 ± 3.7 30.2 ± 3.5 −2.759
.006&
Maternal Age(years) (N(%))    17.364
.001*
<24a 628 (2.8) 14 (2.1)  
25-29a 9775 (42.4) 212 (44.9)  
30–34 9351 (40.7) 244 (41.2)  
≥35a 3165 (14.1) 114 (11.7)  
Pre-pregnancy BMI (kg/m2)
(Mean ± SD)
20.8 ± 3.6 21.1 ± 3.4 20.731
<.001#
Pre-pregnancy BMI (kg/m) (N(%))    
< 18.5a 2813 (13.6) 326 (11.9)  
18.5–23.9 15,105 (73.2) 1978 (72.0)  
≥24a 2730(13.2) 442 (16.1)  
Season of blood collection    8.109
.044*
Spring a 5132(24.9) 746 (27.2)  
Summer 4910 (23.8) 642 (23.4)  
Autumn 5314 (25.7) 660 (24.0)  
Winter 5292(25.6) 698 (25.4)  
No. of previous pregnancies    4.758
.093*
0a 13,311 (64.5) 1824 (66.4)  
1 5072 (24.6) 650 (23.7)  
2+ 2265 (11.0) 272 (9.9)  
Gestational age at birth, weeks
(Mean ± SD)
39.0 ± 1.2 38.2 ± 2.4 −10.445
<.001&
Gestational age at birth (N(%))    1976.277
<.001*
< 28 2 1  
28–31 + 6 32 (.2) 48 (1.7)  
32–33 + 6 13 (.1) 123 (4.5)  
34–36 + 6 614 (3.0) 434 (15.8)  
≥37 19,987 (96.8) 2140 (83.5)  
Male (N%) 10,600 (51.3) 1463 (53.3) 3.655
.056*
Cesarean section (N%) 8975 (43.5) 1069 (38.9) 22.366
<.001*
2-h postpartum hemorrhage(ml) 241 ± 155 255 ± 137 −7.964
<.001&
Apgar score(Mean ± SD) 9.9 ± .6 9.7 ± .9 −18.128
<.001&
Apgar score
(N%)
   233.297
<.001*
0–3 37(.2) 8(.3)  
4-6a 97(.5) 54(2.0)  
7-8a 289(1.4) 127(4.6)  
9-10a 20,225(98.0) 2557(93.1)  
Neonatal birth weight(g) 3366 ± 409 3172 ± 619 −12.208
<.001&
Neonatal birth height(cm) 49.9 ± 1.1 49.2 ± 2.4 −12.976
<.001&
  1. * chi-square test; # Student’s t test;& Mann-Whitney U test. Multiple comparison was adjusted with Bonferroni calculation
  2. a. The difference was significant (P < 0.05) after multiple comparison correction