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Table 2 Odds ratio of opioid prescription by race and pain score based on logistic regression analysisa

From: Racial and ethnic disparities in opioid use for adolescents at US emergency departments

  (Intercept) aORc CI 95b P-value
0.017 0.014–0.021 < 0.001
Race/Ethnicity Non-Hispanic White
Hispanic 0.798 0.697–0.914 < 0.001
Non-Hispanic Black 0.680 0.602–0.769 0.001
Pain Score Pain Score 1 (No Pain)
Pain Score 2 (Mild Pain) 2.107 1.728–2.568 < 0.001
Pain Score 3 (Moderate Pain) 4.019 3.388–4.769 < 0.001
Pain Score 4 (Severe Pain) 7.775 6.521–9.271 < 0.001
Pain Score 0 (No Score Reported) 2.592 2.187–3.073 < 0.001
Pain Diagnosis No Pain Diagnoses
Abdominal Pain 2.226 1.973–2.510 < 0.001
Fractures 7.578 6.464–8.883 < 0.001
Injury excluding fracture 1.551 1.383–1.740 < 0.001
Musculoskeletal Pain 3.130 2.703–3.625 < 0.001
Other Pain Diagnoses 2.029 1.734–2.375 < 0.001
Region Northeast
Midwest 1.536 1.271–1.856 < 0.001
South 1.904 1.612–2.250 < 0.001
West 2.318 1.877–2.863 < 0.001
Payment Method Private Insurance
Medicaid, CHIP, State 0.808 0.740–0.883 < 0.001
Other Payment Method 0.889 0.777–1.018 0.088
Self-Pay 1.054 0.945–1.176 0.343
Sex Male
Female 0.860 0.783–0.944 0.001
Adolescent Age 11–14
15–17 1.500 1.354–1.662 < 0.001
18–21 2.452 2.249–2.672 < 0.001
  1. aAll analyses accounts for the complex sampling design of NHAMCS
  2. bTests are run at 95% Confidence intervals (P < 0.05)
  3. cadjusted odds ratio