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Table 1 US emergency department visits for pediatric patients (2006–2016)a

From: Racial and ethnic disparities in opioid use for adolescents at US emergency departments

Variable Race/ ethnicity Total visits weighted Total received opioid weighted Percent received opioids (weighted CI 95)b Significance
All Visits non-Hispanic Black 46,314,977 7,060,196 15.2% (14.6–15.9%) TRUE
Hispanic 33,115,127 5,744,969 17.4% (16.5–18.2%) TRUE
non-Hispanic White 109,826,315 23,740,585 21.6% (21.1–22.1%)
Age
 11–14 non-Hispanic Black 10,357,118 871,910 8.4% (7.3–9.5%) TRUE
Hispanic 9,835,028 1,065,055 10.8% (9.5–12.1%) TRUE
non-Hispanic White 27,210,118 3,875,138 14.2% (13.4–15.1%)
 15–17 non-Hispanic Black 11,530,230 1,483,259 12.9% (11.6–14.1%) TRUE
Hispanic 8,476,686 1,267,072 15.0% (13.4–16.5%) TRUE
non-Hispanic White 28,845,980 5,411,450 18.8% (17.8–19.7%)
 18–21 non-Hispanic Black 24,427,629 4,705,027 19.3% (18.2–20.3%) TRUE
Hispanic 14,803,413 3,412,842 23.1% (21.7–24.5%) TRUE
non-Hispanic White 53,770,217 14,453,997 26.9% (26.1–27.7%)
Metropolitan Setting
 Metropolitan Area non-Hispanic Black 38,071,587 5,810,872 15.3% (14.5–16.0%) TRUE
Hispanic 27,392,274 4,773,270 17.4% (16.5–18.3%) TRUE
non-Hispanic White 76,616,787 17,818,822 23.3% (22.6–23.9%)
 Non-Metropolitan Area non-Hispanic Black 4,425,515 694,287 15.7% (12.8–18.5%) FALSE
Hispanic 2,084,413 340,727 16.4% (12.4–20.3%) FALSE
non-Hispanic White 23,766,791 4,322,886 18.2% (17.1–19.3%)
 Unknown/Missing Data non-Hispanic Black 3,817,875 555,037 14.5% (12.2–16.9%) FALSE
Hispanic 3,638,440 630,972 17.3% (14.8–19.9%) FALSE
non-Hispanic White 9,442,737 1,598,877 16.9% (15.3–18.5%)
Episode Of Care
 Initial visit to this ED non-Hispanic Black 36,540,026 5,541,337 15.2% (14.4–15.9%) TRUE
Hispanic 26,760,576 4,560,584 17.0% (16.1–18.0%) TRUE
non-Hispanic White 87,184,961 18,229,727 20.9% (20.3–21.5%)  
 Follow-up visit to this ED non-Hispanic Black 2,100,319 406,880 19.4% (16.0–22.7%) TRUE
Hispanic 1,535,101 304,995 19.9% (16.0–23.7%) TRUE
non-Hispanic White 4,612,751 1,227,153 26.6% (24.0–29.2%)
 Unknown/Missing Data non-Hispanic Black 7,674,632 1,111,979 14.5% (13.0–16.0%) TRUE
Hispanic 4,819,450 879,390 18.3% (16.3–20.2%) TRUE
non-Hispanic White 18,028,603 4,283,705 23.8% (22.5–25.0%)
Year of Visit
 2006–2011 non-Hispanic Black 26,272,954 4,547,058 17.3% (16.4–18.2%) TRUE
Hispanic 16,352,926 3,198,892 19.6% (18.4–20.7%) TRUE
non-Hispanic White 61,622,253 15,602,711 25.3% (24.6–26.0%)
 2012–2016 non-Hispanic Black 20,042,023 2,513,138 12.5% (11.5–13.6%) TRUE
Hispanic 16,762,201 2,546,077 15.2% (13.9–16.5%) FALSE
non-Hispanic White 48,204,062 8,137,874 16.9% (16.1–17.7%)
  1. aAll analyses accounts for the complex sampling design of NHAMCS
  2. bTests are run at 95% Confidence intervals (P < 0.05)