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Table 5 Vitamin K prophylaxis regimens and associated incidence of HDN from surveillance data in Europe

From: Vitamin K prophylaxis in newborns

Country Vitamin K prophylaxis Incidence of HDN
per 100,000 infants, RR (95% CI)
Denmark
 1994 to June 2000 2 mg po at birth, 1 mg po weekly for 3 months 0.0 (0 to 0.9)
 After June 2000 2 mg IM at birth Not available
France 2 mg po weekly for 6 weeks Not available
Germany 2 mg po for 3 doses: days 1, 4–10 and 28–42 0.44 (0.2 to 0.9)
Netherlands (A) 1 mg po at birth, 25 μg po daily from week 2 to 13
(B) 1 mg po at birth, 150 μg po daily from week 2 to 13
(A) 3.2 (1.2 to 6.9)
Intracranial HDN, general and targeted surveillance
(A) 1.6 (0.4 to 5.1) and 3.1 (1.9 to 5.0)
(B) 1.3 (0.5 to 3.2) and 1.2 (0.6 to 2.3)
United Kingdom 1 mg IM at birth 0.1
2 mg po for 3 doses: day 1, weeks 1 and 4 0.43
Spain 1 mg IM at birth ‘Almost inexistent’a
Switzerland 2 mg po for 3 doses: day 1, day 4, week 4 0.0 (0.0 to 0.81)b [16]
1.09 (0.4 to 2.6) [17]
  1. Abbreviations: CI confidence interval; HDN haemorrhagic disease of the newborn; IM intramuscular; po per oral; RR relative risk
  2. aNo statistical data available, but ‘almost inexistent’ in the country when enquired through the Spanish authorities (personal communication)
  3. bBetween 2005 and 2011, one early and four late cases of HDN were reported out of 458,184 breastfed newborns. Vitamin K prophylaxis was rejected from the parents in four cases, and the fifth newborn only received the first dose of vitamin K prophylaxis. The incidence of HDN shown is for infants who completed the three doses of oral vitamin K prophylaxis [16]