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Table 3 The associations between characteristics of caregivers and their knowledge of, practice of, and adherence to medication administration

From: Medication-related knowledge, administration practice and adherence among caregivers of chronically ill children in Malaysia

Variables Knowledge Practice Adherence
Adequate n = 101 Inadequate
n = 40
P-valuea Appropriate
n = 117
Inappropriate
n = 24
P-valuea Adherence
n = 117
Non-adherent
n = 24
P-valuea
Caregivers mean age (SD) 36.32 (5.90) 34.58 (6.05) 0.119b 35.93 (6.05) 35.29 (5.63) 0.634b 35.85 (5.96) 35.71 (6.14) 0.918b
Relationship with the child    0.515    0.744    0.353
 Mother 93 (72.7) 35 (27.3)   105 (82.0) 23 (18.0)   104 (81.2) 24 (18.8)  
 Father 7 (58.3) 5 (41.7)   11 (91.7) 1 (8.3)   12 (100.0) 0 (0.0)  
 Relatives 1 (100.0) 0 (0.0)   1 (100.0) 0 (0.0)   1 (100.0) 0 (0.0)  
Receiving help from    0.861    0.296    0.660
 Another parent 38 (69.1) 17 (30.9)   49 (89.1) 6 (10.9)   45 (81.8) 10 (18.2)  
 Other family members 20 (74.1) 7 (25.9)   21 (77.8) 6 (22.2)   24 (88.9) 3 (11.1)  
 None 43 (72.9) 16 (27.1)   47 (79.7) 12 (20.3)   48 (81.4) 11 (18.6)  
Highest educational level    0.100    0.139    0.571
 No formal / Primary education 2 (33.3) 4 (66.7)   5 (83.3) 1 (16.7)   5 (83.3) 1 (16.7)  
 Secondary education 62 (74.4) 21 (25.3)   73 (88.0) 10 (12.0)   71 (85.5) 12 (14.5)  
 Tertiary education 37 (71.2) 15 (28.8)   39 (75.0) 13 (25.0)   41 (78.8) 11 (21.2)  
Occupation    0.067    0.093    0.220
 Stay-home parents 50 (79.4) 13 (20.6)   56 (88.9) 7 (11.1)   55 (87.3) 8 (12.7)  
 Working caregiver 51 (65.4) 27 (34.6)   61 (78.2) 17 (21.8)   62 (79.5) 16 (20.5)  
Marital status    1.000    0.270    0.270
 Married 97 (71.9) 38 (28.1)   113 (83.7) 22 (16.3)   113 (83.7) 22 (16.3)  
 Single 4 (66.7) 2 (33.3)   4 (66.7) 2 (33.3)   4 (66.7) 2 (33.3)  
Duration in medications administration, months    0.829    0.074    0.788
  ≤ 12 26 (68.4) 12 (31.6)   28 (73.7) 10 (26.3)   31 (81.6) 7 (18.4)  
  > 12 75 (72.8) 28 (27.2)   89 (86.4) 14 (13.6)   86 (83.5) 17 (16.5)  
Requiring help to read medication labels?    0.539    1.000    1.000
 Never 97 (72.4) 37 (27.6)   110 (82.1) 24 (17.9)   110 (82.1) 24 (17.9)  
 Rarely 2 (66.7) 1 (33.3)   3 (100.0) 0 (0.0)   3 (100.0) 0 (0.0)  
 Always 0 (0.0) 1 (100.0)   1 (100.0) 0 (0.0)   1 (100.0) 0 (0.0)  
 Never reading 2 (66.7) 1 (33.3)   3 (100.0) 0 (0.0)   3 (100.0) 0 (0.0)  
Where else do you get your medications?    0.928    0.461    0.020
 Only this hospital 84 (70.6) 35 (29.4)   99 (83.2) 20 (16.8)   102 (85.7) 17 (14.3)  
 Other government funded hospital/clinic 9 (75.0) 3 (25.0)   11 (91.7) 1 (8.3)   10 (83.3) 2 (16.7)  
 Private pharmacy/clinic/ hospital 8 (80.0) 2 (20.0)   7 (70.0) 3 (30.0)   5 (50.0) 5 (50.0)  
Number of medications administered    0.863    0.191    < 0.001
 1 42 (72.4) 16 (27.6)   51 (87.9) 7 (12.1)   56 (96.6) 2 (3.4)  
  ≥ 2 59 (71.1) 24 (28.9)   66 (79.5) 17 (20.5)   61 (73.5) 22 (26.5)  
Children age group, years    0.791    0.012    0.480
  ≤ 5 53 (72.6) 20 (27.4)   55 (75.3) 18 (24.7)   59 (80.8) 14 (19.2)  
  > 5 48 (70.6) 20 (29.4)   62 (91.2) 6 (8.8)   58 (85.3) 10 (14.7)  
Children gender    0.962    0.744    0.054
 Male 56 (71.8) 22 (28.2)   64 (82.1) 14 (17.9)   69 (88.5) 9 (11.5)  
 Female 45 (71.4) 18 (28.6)   53 (84.1) 10 (15.9)   48 (76.2) 15 (23.8)  
Number of Chronic diseases    1.000    1.000    0.075
 One type 99 (71.1) 39 (28.3)   114 (82.6) 24 (17.4)   116 (84.1) 22 (15.9)  
 Two types 2 (66.7) 1 (33.3)   3 (100.0) 0 (0.0)   1 (33.3) 2 (66.7)  
  1. aAnalysed with Pearson Chi-square analysis. Fisher’s exact test was applied when assumptions for Pearson Chi-square test was not met
  2. b analysed with independent T-test