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Table 2 Adjusted incidence ratios (IR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for diagnosis of acute and chronic diseases among children receiving public assistance

From: Single-parenthood and health conditions among children receiving public assistance in Japan: a cohort study

  Asthma Allergic rhinitis Dermatitis/ eczema Dental diseases URI Influenza/ pneumonia Intestinal infections Conjunc-tivitis Injury
IR (95% CI) IR (95% CI) IR (95% CI) IR (95% CI) IR (95% CI) IR (95% CI) IR (95% CI) IR (95% CI) IR (95% CI)
Explanatory variable
 Single-parenthood
  No Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
  Yes 1.62 (1.16–2.26) 1.41 (1.07–1.86) 1.81 (1.21–2.70) 1.79 (1.33–2.42) 1.25 (1.03–1.50) 1.02 (0.82–1.27) 1.36 (0.92–2.01) 1.24 (0.84–1.84) 0.98 (0.58–1.67)
Covariates
 Age
  by 1 year 0.93 (0.91–0.96) 1.00 (0.97–1.03) 0.89 (0.86–0.93) 0.99 (0.97–1.02) 0.95 (0.94–0.97) 0.95 (0.93–0.97) 0.86 (0.83–0.90) 0.97 (0.93–1.01) 1.10 (1.04–1.17)
 Sex
  Girl Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
  Boy 1.15 (0.87–1.52) 1.17 (0.92–1.48) 1.29 (0.93–1.78) 0.90 (0.71–1.15) 1.04 (0.89–1.22) 1.14 (0.93–1.41) 1.44 (1.02–2.04) 0.90 (0.64–1.27) 1.40 (0.81–2.41)
 Presence of siblings
  Only child Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
  Have siblings 0.83 (0.62–1.12) 0.89 (0.69–1.15) 0.72 (0.51–1.02) 0.88 (0.68–1.13) 0.82 (0.69–0.97) 0.85 (0.68–1.06) 0.75 (0.52–1.08) 0.75 (0.51–1.09) 1.28 (0.7–2.31)
 Parent’s work
  No Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
  Yes 0.83 (0.62–1.11) 0.89 (0.69–1.14) 0.98 (0.69–1.40) 0.91 (0.71–1.17) 1.02 (0.86–1.21) 1.05 (0.84–1.30) 0.74 (0.49–1.13) 0.62 (0.42–0.91) 0.89 (0.5–1.57)
 Nationality
  Japanese Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
  Others 0.69 (0.31–1.50) 0.91 (0.52–1.60) 0.91 (0.43–1.91) 1.81 (1.27–2.57) 0.87 (0.6–1.27) 0.63 (0.36–1.11) 0.86 (0.6–1.23) 1.15 (0.57–2.31) 1.66 (0.6–4.64)
 Municipality
  A Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
  B 0.94 (0.69–1.27) 1.53 (1.21–1.93) 0.82 (0.57–1.17) 1.26 (0.98–1.63) 1.14 (0.96–1.35) 1.22 (0.99–1.51) 0.52 (0.34–0.79) 0.95 (0.65–1.40) 3.55 (2.05–6.16)
  1. URI Upper respiratory infections