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Table 3 Bivariable analysis of water-related factors with acute diarrhea in Woldia Town, northeast Ethiopia, March to June 2018

From: Prevalence of acute diarrhea and water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) associated factors among children under five in Woldia Town, Amhara Region, northeastern Ethiopia

Variable Frequency Acute diarrhea COR (95% CI) p-value
n(%) Yes No
n(%) n(%)   
Main source of drinking water
 Public tap 91(18.8) 29(31.9) 62(68.1) 3.52(1.41-7.17) 0.001
 Protected well 44(9.1) 11(25.0) 33(75.0) 2.51(1.17-5.40) 0.019
 Protected spring 42(8.7) 9(21.4) 33(78.6) 2.05(0.91-4.62) 0.084
 Private tap 307(63.4) 36(11.7) 271(88.3) 1  
Walking time to obtain drinking water from main source
 30 minutes or longer 81(16.7) 21(25.9) 60(74.1) 1.85(1.14-4.62) 0.030
 Less than 30 minutes 403(83.3) 64(15.9) 339(84.1) 1  
SDGs water supply safely managed criteria
Quantity of water consumption per capita per day
  <20 liters 320(66.1) 73(22.8) 247(77.2) 3.74(1.97-7.12) <0.001
  ≥20 liters 164(33.9) 12(7.3) 152(92.7) 1  
Water supply interruption during the past two weeks (reliability of water supply)
  Yes 363(75.0) 68(18.7) 295(81.3) 1.41(0.79-2.51) 0.243
  No 121(25.0) 17(14.1) 104(85.9) 1  
Water source connection
  In-house connection 98(20.2) 6(6.1) 92(93.9) 1  
  Yard connection 207(42.8) 30(14.5) 177(85.5) 2.60(1.04-6.47) 0.040
  Connection outside the compound 179(37.0) 49(27.4) 130(72.6) 5.77(2.05-14.07) <0.001
 Bacteriological water quality and chemical contamination of main source of drinking watera      
Water storage duration during the past two weeks
  ≥3 days 217(44.8) 39(18.0) 178(82.0) 1.05(0.66-1.68) 0.831
  <3 days 267(55.2) 46(17.2) 221(82.8) 1  
Container used to store water
  Plastic bucket with lid/pot with lid 256(52.9) 209(81.6) 47(18.4) 1.12(0.70-1.80) 0.625
  Small-necked jerry cans with lid 228(47.1) 38(16.7) 190(83.3) 1  
Frequency of cleaning of water storage container
  Weekly 157(32.4) 23(14.6) 134(85.4) 0.73(0.43-1.26) 0.259
  Once per two weeks 58(12.0) 11(19.0) 47(81.0) 1.00(0.49-2.06) 0.999
  Always before fetching water 269(55.6) 51(19.0) 218(81.0) 1  
Home-based water treatment
  No 435(89.9) 79(18.2) 356(81.8) 1.59(0.65-3.87) 0.306
  Yes 49(10.1) 6(12.2) 43(87.8) 1  
  1. 1 reference category, COR crud odds ratio, CI confidence interval
  2. aOur study did not consider the primary test of bacteriological water quality and chemical contamination. But, the secondary data report during the study period (March to June 2018) from the Woldia town water and sewerage office showed that the water quality met WHO guidelines of 0 cfu/100 ml for E. coli (Escherichia coli) indicator at the water source and also met the WHO guidelines for primary chemical status at the water source [41]