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Table 2 Longitudinal associations between BMI z-scores and neurodevelopment at 6 and 12 months of agea

From: Bidirectional association of neurodevelopment with growth: a prospective cohort study

Outcomes at 12 months Predictors at 6 months   β (95% CI)
Adaptive behavior Infant Z-scored BMI Model 1 −0.01(− 0.03,0.01)
Model 2 −0.01(− 0.02,0.01)
Model 3 −0.01(− 0.02,0.01)
Gross motor Model 1 −0.29(− 0.36,-0.22)*
Model 2 −0.19(− 0.29,-0.09)*
Model 3 −0.08(− 0.12,− 0.04)*
Fine motor Model 1 -0.04(−0.11,0.03)
Model 2 −0.02(− 0.06,0.03)
Model 3 −0.02(− 0.04,0.01)
Language Model 1 −0.02(− 0.04,0.01)
Model 2 −0.02(− 0.04,0.01)
Model 3 −0.02(− 0.03,0.01)
Social behavior Model 1 −0.09(− 0.12,− 0.08)*
Model 2 -0.08(−0.11,− 0.05)*
Model 3 -0.05(−0.08,0.00)
  1. Model 1: adjusted for basic information; Model 2: model 1+ maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, gestational weight gain, delivery mode, gestational weeks, birth weight z score, mode of infant feeding, introduction of solid foods and micronutrients supplementation; Model 3: model 2+ Infant Z-scored BMI at 6 months in the neurodevelopment- BMI relationships, or neurodevelopment scores at 6 months in the BMI – neurodevelopment relationships
  2. *Statistically significant
  3. aN = 449. N varied from 1.7 to 2.8% in each regression because the complete data for each subscale of the Gesell Development Scale were varied