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Table 1 Longitudinal associations between neurodevelopment and BMI z-scores at 6 and 12 months of agea

From: Bidirectional association of neurodevelopment with growth: a prospective cohort study

Outcomes at 12 months Predictors at 6 months   β (95% CI)
Infant Z-scored BMI Adaptive behavior Model 1 −0.06(− 0.20,0.08)
Model 2 −0.04(− 0.18,0.10)
Model 3 −0.03(− 0.19,0.13)
Gross motor Model 1 −0.54(− 0.67,-0.41)*
Model 2 −0.44(− 0.58,-0.30)*
Model 3 −0.20(− 0.31,-0.09)*
Fine motor Model 1 −0.03(− 0.15,0.09)
Model 2 −0.03(− 0.16,0.11)
Model 3 −0.01(− 0.05,0.04)
Language Model 1 −0.03(− 0.13,0.07)
Model 2 −0.03(− 0.12,0.07)
Model 3 −0.02(− 0.10,0.06)
Social behavior Model 1 −0.35(− 0.48,-0.23)*
Model 2 −0.31(− 0.41,-0.21)*
Model 3 −0.23(− 0.33,-0.13)*
  1. Model 1: adjusted for basic information; Model 2: model 1+ maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, gestational weight gain, delivery mode, gestational weeks, birth weight z score, mode of infant feeding, introduction of solid foods and micronutrients supplementation; Model 3: model 2+ Infant Z-scored BMI at 6 months in the neurodevelopment- BMI relationships, or neurodevelopment scores at 6 months in the BMI – neurodevelopment relationships
  2. *Statistically significant
  3. aN = 449. N varied from 1.7 to 2.8% in each regression because the complete data for each subscale of the Gesell Development Scale were varied