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Table 3 Association of neonatal care factors with child developmental outcomes

From: Maternal and neonatal factors associated with child development in Ceará, Brazil: a population-based study

  N Communication p-value Gross motor p-value Fine motor p-value Problem-solving p-value Personal-social p-value
Multivariate-adjusted standardized mean difference (95% CI) Multivariate-adjusted standardized mean difference (95% CI) Multivariate-adjusted standardized mean difference (95% CI) Multivariate-adjusted standardized mean difference (95% CI) Multivariate-adjusted standardized mean difference (95% CI)
Neonatal care factorsa
 Extended in-patient stay after birtha
  NICU or Incubator 251 − 0.21 (− 0.41, − 0.01) 0.04 − 0.43 (− 0.77, − 0.09) 0.01 −0.38 (− 0.65, − 0.11) 0.006 − 0.17 (− 0.42, 0.07) 0.17 −0.22 (− 0.41, − 0.03) 0.02
  Nursery 274 − 0.01 (− 0.14, 0.11) 0.83 −0.02 (− 0.13, 0.09) 0.72 −0.02 (− 0.24, 0.19) 0.81 − 0.13 (− 0.29, 0.01) 0.08 0 (− 0.13, 0.14) 0.98
  Routine Discharge 2984 Reference   Reference   Reference   Reference   Reference  
 Need for resuscitation after birtha (Reference: no)
  Yes 36 −0.43 (− 0.83, − 0.03) 0.03 − 0.56 (− 1.45, 0.32) 0.21 − 0.78 (− 1.3, − 0.25) 0.004 −0.14 (− 0.77, 0.47) 0.64 − 0.46 (− 0.95, 0.02) 0.06
 Antibiotics after birth (neonatal infection)b (Reference: no)
  Yes 191 −0.18 (− 0.43, 0.07) 0.16 − 0.34 (− 0.72, 0.04) 0.08 −0.32 (− 0.6, − 0.05) 0.02 −0.28 (− 0.5, − 0.07) 0.01 −0.19 (− 0.44, 0.05) 0.13
 Breastfed within the first hour of lifec (Reference: yes)
  No 732 −0.1 (− 0.24, 0.03) 0.13 − 0.3 (− 0.51, − 0.09) 0.005 −0.16 (− 0.41, 0.08) 0.20 −0.06 (− 0.21, 0.08) 0.39 −0.21 (− 0.37, − 0.06) 0.007
  1. aadjusted for age, sex, interviewer, maternal level of schooling, permanent income, ferrous sulfate, folic acid, smoking, drinking, low birth weight, gestational age and twin birth
  2. badjusted for age, sex, interviewer, maternal level of schooling, permanent income, ferrous sulfate, folic acid, smoking, drinking, low birth weight, twin birth, and extended in-patient hospital stay after birth
  3. cadjusted for age, sex, interviewer, maternal level of schooling, permanent income, ferrous sulfate, folic acid, smoking, drinking, low birth weight, twin birth, antibiotics, and need for resuscitation (selected to avoid collinearity)
  4. General linear models, adjusted for sample clustering