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Table 2 Association pregnancy factors, low birthweight and prematurity with child developmental outcomes

From: Maternal and neonatal factors associated with child development in Ceará, Brazil: a population-based study

  N Communication p-value Gross motor p-value Fine motor p-value Problem-solving p-value Personal-social p-value
Multivariate-adjusted standardized mean difference (95% CI) Multivariate-adjusted standardized mean difference (95% CI) Multivariate-adjusted standardized mean difference (95% CI) Multivariate-adjusted standardized mean difference (95% CI) Multivariate-adjusted standardized mean difference (95% CI)
Birth weighta (reference: ≥ 2500 g)
 < 2500 g 278 -0.14 (−0.26, − 0.02) 0.02 − 0.17 (− 0.35, 0.01) 0.06 − 0.24 (− 0.44, − 0.04) 0.01 − 0.31 (− 0.45, − 0.16) < 0.001 − 0.06 (− 0.21, 0.08) 0.38
Gestational age (reference: Full-term)
 Preterm (< 37 weeks) 147 − 0.18 (− 0.20, 0.16) 0.84 − 0.11 (− 0.32, 0.09) 0.27 0.05 (− 0.20, 0.30) 0.70 − 0.08 (− 0.31, 0.13) 0.44 0.15 (− 0,02, 0.34) 0.09
Pregnancy Factorsb
 Iron supplementation during pregnancy (Reference: yes)       
  No 183 0.02 (− 0.19,0.23) 0.85 0 (− 0.22, 0.22) 0.99 0.23 (− 0.09, 0.56) 0.16 0.23 (− 0.05, 0.52) 0.11 0.03 (− 0.19, 0.26) 0.77
 Folic acid supplementation during pregnancy (Reference: yes)
  No 177 − 0.06 (− 0.24, 0.12) 0.52 − 0.15 (− 0.37, 0.07) 0.18 − 0.53 (− 0.87, − 0.19) 0.002 − 0.34 (− 0.59, − 0.09) 0.008 −0.04 (− 0.26, 0.17) 0.67
 Smoking during pregnancy (Reference: no)
  Yes 216 − 0.05 (− 0.24, 0.12) 0.54 − 0.01 (− 0.24, 0.22) 0.92 − 0.2 (− 0.42, 0.02) 0.07 − 0.22 (− 0.49, 0.03) 0.09 − 0.09 (− 0.27, 0.08) 0.29
 Self-reported alcohol consumption during pregnancy (Reference: no)
  Yes 207 − 0.17 (− 0.34, 0) 0.05 0.03 (− 0.13, 0.21) 0.67 − 0.19 (− 0.4, 0.02) 0.08 − 0.11 (− 0.31, 0.07) 0.24 0.04 (− 0.12, 0.2) 0.62
  1. aAdjusted for age, sex, interviewer, maternal level of schooling, permanent income, ferrous sulfate, folic acid, smoking, drinking, low birth weight, gestational age and twin birth
  2. bAdjusted for age, sex, interviewer, maternal level of schooling, permanent income