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Table 3 Available screening tests for visual impairment [4, 5]

From: Vision screening in newborns and early childhood

Visual impairment Type of tests Screening tests
Visual acuity Optotypes Picture identification tests
HOTV eye test
Tumbling E
Strabismus Ocular alignment tests Hirschberg test (corneal light reflex test)
Cover-uncover test (cross cover test)
Bruckner test (red reflex test)
Anisometropia Stereoacuity test Stereo Smile
Random Dot E
Refractive errors Instrument-based screening Photorefraction
Autorefractive screening
(computerized systems that allow objective assessment of refractive errors)
Multiple Instrument-based screening Photo-screening (digitalized image)