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Table 2 Factors associated with diarrhea in children under-5 years old (n = 8879)

From: Factors associated with diarrhoea and acute respiratory infection in children under-5 years old in Ghana: an analysis of a national cross-sectional survey

Variable Unadjusted OR (95% CI) Adjusted OR (95% CI)
Child age (months)
 0–5 1 1
 6–11 2.01 (1.44,2.82) 2.06 (1.45,2.92) *
 12–23 2.31 (1.63,3.28) 2.37 (1.67,3.35) *
 24–59 1.20 (0.85,1.69) 1.15 (0.82,1.63)
Gender **
 Boy 1 1
 Girl 0.95 (0.80,1.13) 0.95 (0.80,1.13)
Child’s health insurance status
 Yes 1 1
 No 1.14 (0.96,1.35) 1.02 (0.86,1.20)
Mothers education
 No formal education 1 1
 Primary 0.89 (0.70,1.13) 0.91 (0.71,1.17)
 Secondary 0.59 (0.47,0.75) 0.66 (0.51,0.86) *
 College or higher education 0.27 (0.16,0.46) 0.41 (0.22,0.78) *
Source of drinking water
 Unimproved 1 1
 Improved 0.64 (0.48,0.85) 0.78 (0.54,1.11)
Sanitation
 Unimproved 1 1
 Improved 0.68 (0.58,0.81) 0.86 (0.71,1.05)
Floor material **
 Improved 1 1
 Unimproved 1.14 (0.92,1.42) 0.84 (0.64,1.11)
Household Wealth
 Poorest 1 1
 Poor 0.84 (0.69,1.02) 0.92 (0.74,1.14)
 Middle 0.81 (0.61,1.09) 0.94 (0.64,1.37)
 Rich 0.69 (0.53,0.90) 0.80 (0.58,1.12)
 Richest 0.41 (0.31,0.53) 0.58 (0.39,0.86) *
Place of residence
 Urban 1 1
 Rural 1.14 (0.94,1.39) 0.78 (0.63,0.98) *
Presence of handwashing station in dwelling
 No 1 1
 Yes 0.48 (0.32,0.74) 0.74 (0.46,1.21)
  1. * = Significant at P-value < 0.05; 1 = Reference category; ** = Variables with P-value > 0.2 but were included in the adjusted model as these variables are clinically relevant or might have some biological plausibility with the outcome