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Table 1 Socio-demographic, obstetric and neonatal characteristics

From: Burden and consequence of birth defects in Nepal-evidence from prospective cohort study

Variables Birth defect No Birth defect Total cOR (95% CI) p-value
Age of mother (n=87,112)
 < 20 years 47 (9.3%) 6604 (7.6%) 6651 (7.6%) 1.25 (0.93–1.69) 0.15
 20–35 years 442 (87.4%) 77,722 (89.7%) 78,164 (89.7%) Ref  
 > 35 years 17 (3.4%) 2280 (2.6%) 2297 (2.6%) 1.31 (0.81–2.13) 0.28
Literacy (n=66,949)
 Illiterate 19 (6.0%) 3063 (4.6%) 3082 (4.6%) 1.31 (0.83–2.1) 0.249
 Literate 300 (94.0%) 63,567 (95.4%) 63,867 (95.4%) Ref  
Ethnicity (n=87,112)
 Brahmin/Chhetri (relatively advantaged group) 131 (25.9%) 33,897 (39.1%) 34,057 (39.1%) Ref  
 Others (relatively disadvantaged group) 375 (74.1%) 52,709 (60.9%) 53,147 (60.9%) 1.84 (1.51–2.25) < 0.001
Smoking (n=66,949)
 No 297 (93.1%) 60,869 (91.4%) 61,166 (91.4%) Ref  
 Yes 22 (6.9%) 5761 (8.6%) 5783 (8.6%) 0.78 (0.51–1.21) 0.268
Type of fuel (n=66,722)
 Polluted 142 (45.1%) 16,283 (24.5%) 16,425 (24.6%) 2.53 (2.02–3.16) < 0.001
 Clean 173 (54.9%) 50,124 (75.5%) 50,297 (75.4%) Ref  
Sex of the baby (n=87,112)
 Boy 239 (47.2%) 46,836 (54.1%) 47,129 (54.0%) Ref  
 Girl 267 (52.8%) 39,770 (45.9%) 40,037 (46.0%) 1.32 (1.10–1.57) 0.002
Parity (n=87,101)
 Nullipara 172 (34.1%) 39,882 (46.1%) 40,054 (46.0%) Ref  
 Primipara 183 (36.2%) 30,472 (35.2%) 30,655 (35.2%) 1.39 (1.13–1.72) 0.002
 Multipara 150 (29.7%) 16,242 (18.8%) 16,392 (18.8%) 2.14 (1.72–2.67) < 0.001
ANC check-up by doctor/nurse (n=66,949)
 Yes 316 (99.1%) 66,015 (99.1%) 66,331 (99.1%) Ref  
 No 3 (0.9%) 615 (0.9%) 618 (0.9%) 1.02 (0.33–3.19) 0.974
Time for first ANC visit (n=66,331)
 First trimester 189 (59.8%) 29,594 (44.8%) 29,783 (44.9%) 1.68 (1.15–2.46) 0.008
 Second trimester 96 (30.4%) 28,276 (42.8%) 28,372 (42.8%) 0.89 (0.59–1.34) 0.58
 Third trimester 31 (9.8%) 8145 (12.3%) 8176 (12.3%) Ref  
Severe anemia during pregnancy (n=6002)
 No 28 (96.6%) 5804 (97.2%) 5832 (97.2%) Ref  
 Yes 1 (3.4%) 169 (2.8%) 170 (2.8%) 1.23 (0.17–9.07) 0.841
Multiple delivery (n=87,112)
 No 495 (97.8%) 85,667 (98.9%) 86,162 (98.9%) Ref  
 Yes 11 (2.2%) 939 (1.1%) 950 (1.1%) 2.03 (1.11–3.69) 0.02
  1. cOR crude Odds Ratio