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Table 3 Recommendations and sources of the evidence for preventing poisoning

From: Prevention of unintentional injuries in children under five years

Recommendations Guidelines and/or institutions recommending the intervention Source of the evidence
Remove the toxic agent - WHO 2008; European region [1]
- RCPCH 2019 [2]
- Flanagan 2005; cohort study [52]
- Roberts 2003; cohort study [53]
Packaging
- Pass and enforce legislation requiring child-resistant packaging of medicines and poisons
- Packaging drugs in non-lethal quantities
- WHO 2008; European region [1]
- EuroSafe 2006 [13]
- Flanagan 2005; cohort study [52]
- European laws and regulations 2008 [54]
Poison control centres
- Establishing poison control centres
- Having a poison control centre sticker available
- Know the nationwide poison control centre phone number
- WHO 2008; European region [1]
- PrevInfad 2011 [42]
- CDC 2019 [16]
- EuroSafe 2006 [13]
- IPCS INTOX Programme [49]
- WHO resources for poisons centre [55]
- Kendrick 2013; Cochrane systematic review [51]
- Kendrick 2012; Cochrane systematic review [46]
- Bateman 2002; cohort study [56]
Secure storage
Lock away medicines and other toxic substances
- WHO 2008; European region [1]
- PrevInfad 2011 [42]
- RCPCH 2019 [2]
- CDC 2019 [16]
- EuroSafe 2006 [13]
- Kendrick 2013; Cochrane systematic review [51]
- Kendrick 2012; Cochrane systematic review [46]
- Turner 2011; Cochrane systematic review [50]
Remove or regulate availability of toxic substances that are easily mistaken for edible items - WHO 2008; European region [1] (See original documents)
Teach children to avoid poisonous substances - WHO 2008; European region [1] (See original documents)
Attractiveness of medications and poisons
- Reduce the attractiveness of medications and poisonous products
- Do not call medicine ‘candy’
- WHO 2008; European region [1]
- CDC 2019 [16]
(See original documents)
Provide home safety education and safety equipment - WHO 2008; European region [1] - Kendrick 2013; Cochrane systematic review [51]
- Turner 2011; Cochrane systematic review [50]
Safe use of syrup of ipecac
Routine administration of ipecac at the site of ingestion or in the emergency department should be avoided
- PrevInfad 2011 [42] - Kendrick 2012; Cochrane systematic review [46]
- Höjer 2013; systematic review [57]
  1. Abbreviations: CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, PrevInfad PrevInfad workgroup from the Spanish Association of Primary Care Pediatrics, RCPCH Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health, WHO World Health Organization