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Table 1 Recommendations and sources of the evidence for preventing traffic road injuries

From: Prevention of unintentional injuries in children under five years

Recommendations Guidelines and/or institutions recommending the intervention Source of the evidence
Child restraint system
- Correct use of the child restraint system
- Rear-facing (as long as possible)
- Position in rear centre seat
- WHO 2008; European region [1]
- WHO 2018; global report [6]
- WHO 2009 [15]
- PrevInfad 2019 (high degree of certainty that net profit is important) [5]
- RCPCH 2019 [2]
- CDC 2019 [16]
- EuroSafe 2006 [13]
Use of child restraint system:
- Arbogast 2009; cohort study [17]
- Zaloshnja 2007; cohort study [18]
- Elliott 2006; cohort study [19]
- Sauber-Schatz 2015; cohort study [20]
Rear-facing:
- MAPFRE 2011; Spanish summary report [21]
- McMurry 2018; cohort study [22]
- Jakobsson 2005, 40-year Swedish cohort [23]
- Gloyns 2008; European study commissioned by ANEC [24]
Rear seat:
- Lennon2008; cohort study [25]
- Kallan 2008; cohort study [26]
Promotion of interventions:
- Ehiri 2006; Cochrane systematic review [27]
Helmet
- Use of helmet for all children, as riders and passengers in bikes and motorcycles
- WHO 2008; European region [1]
- WHO 2018, global report [6]
- WHO 2006 [28]
- PrevInfad 2019 [5]
- CDC 2019 [16]. CDC provides a set of recommendations on how to choose a helmet, how to wear it correctly, how to take care of it, and when to replace it.
- USCPSTF 2013 [29]. Strong evidence for recommendation on universal motorcycle helmet laws.
- EuroSafe 2006 [13]
- Owen 2012; Cochrane systematic review [30]
- Liu 2008; Cochrane systematic review [31]
- Macphersen 2008; Cochrane systematic review [32]
- Thompson 1999; Cochrane systematic review [33]
- USCPSTF 2013; review of the literature [29]
Safety education of pedestrians
- Pedestrians can increase their visibility at night
- Cross the street at a designated crosswalk or intersection
- Walk on a sidewalk or path; if not available, walk on the shoulder and facing traffic
- WHO 2008; European region [1]
- WHO 2018, global report [6]
- WHO 2013 [34]
- PrevInfad 2019 [5]
- RCPCH 2019 [2]
- CDC 2019 [16]
- NICE 2010a [35]
- EuroSafe 2006 [13]
- Kwan 2009 [36]
- Duperrex 2002; Cochrane systematic review [37, 38]
- Turner 2004; systematic review [39]
- Bunn 2003; Cochrane systematic review [40]
  1. Abbreviations: CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, NICE National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, PrevInfad PrevInfad workgroup from the Spanish Association of Primary Care Pediatrics, RCPCH Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health, USCPSTF US Community Preventive Services Task Force, WHO World Health Organization