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Table 3 The comparison of PIPP scores in three methods, before, during and after heel stick

From: Comparison of facilitated tucking and oral dextrose in reducing the pain of heel stick in preterm infants: a randomized clinical trial

MeasurementOral Dextrose
(M ± SD)
Facilitated tucking
(M ± SD)
Control
(M ± SD)
ANOVA
Time
Difference between during and before3.58 ± 0.345.58 ± 0.538.91 ± 0.18p < 0.001
Difference between after and during−2.33 ± 0.23−2.91 ± 0.53−4.50 ± 0.29p < 0.001
Difference between after and before1.25 ± 0.382.66 ± 0.234.41 ± 0.18p < 0.001