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Table 3 Linear regression coefficient for association between WASH related variables and nutritional outcomes among under-five Nepalese children (n = 2320)

From: Water, sanitation and hygiene practices associated with improved height-for-age, weight-for-height and weight-for-age z-scores among under-five children in Nepal

WASH Outcomes Height-for-age (β^, 95%CI) Weight-for-height (β^, 95%CI) Weight-for-age (β^, 95%CI)
Unadjusted Adjusted Unadjusted Adjusted Unadjusted Adjusted
Sanitation Coverage 0.54 (0.35, 0.74)*** 0.28 (0.001, 0.56) a,* 0.66 (0.50, 0.82)*** 0.19 (− 0.04, 0.42) a 0.78 (0.62, 0.94)*** 0.30 (0.12, 0.48)a, **
Water Purification
 Yes 0.37 (0.16, 0.59)** −0.02 (− 0.24, 0.20) b 0.52 (0.38, 0.67)*** 0.24 (0.07, 0.41)b, ** 0.56 (0.38, 0.73)*** 0.11 (−0.06, 0.28) b
 No (Ref) 1 1 1 1 1 1
Water & Soap available
 Yes 0.46 (0.32, 0.59)*** 0.09 (−0.05, 0.22) c 0.29 (0.18, 0.40)*** 0.13 (0.01, 0.24)c, * 0.47 (0.35, 0.58)*** 0.15 (0.04, 0.25)c, **
 No (Ref) 1 1 1 1 1 1
  1. aAdjusted for child’s birth weight, child’s age, child’s sex wealth quintiles, use of clean fuel, sex of household head, ecological region, area of residence, women’s age, women's marital status, women’s education, women’s smoking status, women’s BMI, ANC 4th visits, institutional delivery, frequency of watching TV, child's diarrhea incidence over past 2 weeks, household water purification practice and household water and soap availability
  2. bAdjusted for child’s birth weight, child’s age, child’s sex wealth quintiles, use of clean fuel, sex of household head, ecological region, area of residence, women’s age, women's marital status, women’s education, women’s smoking status, women’s BMI, ANC 4th visits, institutional delivery, frequency of watching TV, child's diarrhea incidence over past 2 week, cluster sanitation coverage and household water and soap availability
  3. cAdjusted for child’s birth weight, child’s age, child’s sex wealth quintiles, use of clean fuel, sex of household head, ecological region, area of residence, women’s age, women's marital status, women’s education, women’s smoking status, women’s BMI, ANC 4th visits, institutional delivery, frequency of watching TV, child's diarrhea incidence over past 2 weeks, cluster sanitation coverage and household water purification practice
  4. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001