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Table 1 Variables in the history and physical exam associated with patients 0–36 months of age presenting to the ED with fever, previously on and off antibiotics

From: Comparing febrile children presenting on and off antibiotics to the emergency department: a retrospective cohort study

 All
N = 753
AB-
N = 584
AB+
N = 169
P-Value
Age (months), mean(±SD)17.8 ± 10.216.86 ± 10.2621.22 ± 9.18< 0.0001
Male406 (53.9)300 (51.4)106 (62.7)0.009
Fever Duration (days), mean(±SD)2.9 ± 3.52.14 ± 1.644.55 ± 5.54< 0.0001
Congestion, yes251 (33.4)196 (33.6)55 (32.7)0.83
Immunizations up to date for age, yes259 (97.7)235 (97.5)24 (100.0)1.00
At least one of the below symptoms664 (88.4)509 (87.3)155 (92.3)0.07
 Respiratory Symptoms416 (55.4)323 (55.4)93 (55.4)0.99
 Gastrointestinal Symptoms332 (44.2)253 (43.4)79 (47.0)0.40
 Urinary Symptoms11 (1.5)10 (1.7)1 (0.6)0.47
 Sore Throat45 (6.0)28 (4.8)17 (10.1)0.01
 Otalgia31 (4.1)25 (4.3)6 (3.6)0.67
 Rash36 (4.8)29 (5.0)7 (4.2)0.67
 Decreased Appetite285 (38.2)223 (38.6)62 (36.9)0.69
 Decreased Urine output67 (9.3)56 (10.1)11 (6.5)0.16
 Decreased Activity120 (16.3)94 (16.5)26 (15.5)0.75
 Change in mental status118 (15.7)84 (14.4)34 (20.2)0.07
ED Tmaxa(°C) < 38243 (32.3)161 (28.4)83 (49.7)< 0.0001
 38–39.4353 (46.9)298 (52.6)55 (33.3)
 > 39.5–4099 (13.1)78 (13.8)21 (12.7)
 > 4037 (4.9)30 (5.3)7 (4.2)
Tachycardia (n = 291)201 (69.1)75 (53.2)126 (84)< 0.0001
Tachypnea (n = 275)26 (9.5)10 (7.4)16 (11.5)0.24
Hypoxia (n = 444)75 (20.4)55 (15.8)20 (20.6)0.24
Normal physical exam732 (97.6)568 (97.3)164 (98.8)0.39
At least one abnormal finding below21 (2.4)16 (2.7)5 (1.2)0.39
 Sick Looking28 (37)28 (4.8)0 (0.0)0.004
 Abnormal lung sounds92 (12.6)59 (10.4)33 (20.1)0.001
 Lungs wheezing36 (4.9)29 (5.1)7 (4.3)0.66
 Abnormal mental status b81 (10.8)71 (12.2)10 (6.0)0.02
 Abnormal perfusion (n = 19)12 (63.2)12 (70.6)0 (0.0)0.12
 Abnormal TM c155 (20.7)110 (18.8)45 (27.1)0.02
 Abnormal tonsils380 (50.8)283 (48.5)97 (59.1)0.02
 Skin rash38 (5.2)34 (5.9)4 (2.4)0.07
Well appearing babyd85 (11.3)72 (12.3)13 (7.7)0.09
  1. Percentages are of the total who had a response to that finding
  2. aHighest temperature measured in the Emergency Department
  3. bIncludes hypoactivity, lethargy, sleepy, irritable
  4. cTM Tympanic membrane
  5. dnormal physician exam and no symptoms other than congestion