Skip to main content

Table 1 Measures used to assess body image and supplement use

From: Muscle building supplement use in Australian adolescent boys: relationships with body image, weight lifting, and sports engagement




Direct Questioning: Age, ethnicity, height, weight

Sports Participation

Boys were asked to indicate all of the sports that they are involved in. Options included: soccer, basketball, swimming, Australian Football, Cross Country, Hockey, Athletics, and ‘other (please specify)

Body Image

The 10-item Appearance subscale of the Body Esteem Scale for Adolescents and Adults [30] was used to assess body esteem. Cronbach’s alpha for the current study was acceptable α = .63

Drive for Muscularity

The 7-item Beliefs Subscale of the Drive for Muscularity Scale [31] was used to assess Drive for Muscularity. Previous research has confirmed that only the beliefs subscale, not the muscularity attitudes subscale predicts supplement use [25] Cronbach’s alpha for the current study was high α = .99

Use of Protein Powder, creatine, and anabolic steroids

Direct questioning items from ATLAS evaluation studies [32, 33] included: “Have you ever used (protein powder/creatine/anabolic steroids)” and participants responded by selecting an option from ‘I don’t know what this is’, ‘no, never’, ‘yes, once or twice’, or ‘yes, more than three times’.

Intentions to use protein powder, creatine, and anabolic steroids

Items from ATLAS evaluation studies [32, 33] asked participants to indicate the degree to which they agree or disagree (on a 7-point response scale) with the statements ‘I intend to try or use (protein powder/creatine/anabolic steroids)’.

Weight Training

Direct questioning “Do you do any weight training” with yes/no responses.