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Table 4 Correlations between motor proficiency subtests (scale scores) and mathematical and reading outcomes (standard scores) for total sample

From: Associations between motor proficiency and academic performance in mathematics and reading in year 1 school children: a cross-sectional study

 Fine motor precisionFine motor integrationManual dexterityUpper limb coordinationBilateral coordinationBalanceRunning speed and agilityStrength
Mathematics composite (n = 55)rs = .449 (.001)*rs = .525 (<.001)*rs = .391 (.003)r = .274 (.043)rs = .361 (.007)r = .231 (.090)r = .387 (.004)r = .291 (.031)
Maths reasoning (n = 55)rs = .449 (.001)*rs = .530 (<.001)*rs = .436 (.001)*r = .233 (.087)rs = .331 (.013)r = .224 (.100)r = .365 (.006)r = .256 (.059)
Numerical operations (n = 55)rs = .357 (.007)rs = .461 (<.001)*rs = .306 (.023)r = .296 (.028)rs = .331 (.014)r = .217 (.111)r = .380 (.004)r = .293 (.030)
Reading composite (n = 54)rs = .368 (.006)rs = .470 (<.001)*rs = .254 (.064)rs = .289 (.034)rs = .259 (.058)rs = .163 (.240)rs = .252 (.065)rs = .162 (.241)
Pseudoword decoding (n = 54)rs = .311 (.022)rs = .459 (<.001)*rs = .250 (.069)rs = .279 (.041)rs = .353 (.009)rs = .156 (.261)rs = .251 (.068)rs = .188 (.174)
Word reading (n = 55)rs = .395 (.003)rs = .512 (<.001)*rs = .210 (.123)r = .301 (.026)rs = .221 (.104)r = .235 (.084)r = .269 (.047)r = .122 (.375)
Reading comprehension (n = 54)rs = .301 (.027)rs = .391 (.004)rs = .245 (.074)r = .214 (.120)rs = .141 (.308)r = .174 (.209)r = .200 (.147)r = .078 (.576)
  1. Spearman’s rho (rs) and Pearson’s (r) correlation coefficients are reported as appropriate
  2. *p ≤ .05 (significant correlations after conducting Bonferroni correction at α = 0.05 / 56 ≈ 0.001)