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Table 2 Risk factors for Rotavirus and Campylobacter mono-infection and co-infection in multivariate analysis

From: Co-infection with Campylobacter and rotavirus in less than 5 year old children with acute gastroenteritis in Nepal during 2017–2018

Risk factorsRotavirus monoinfectionCampylobacter monoinfectionCo-infection
AOR (95%CI)P -valueAOR (95%CI)P-valueAOR (95%CI)P-value
Months
 November1 1 1 
 December0.59 (0.15–2.30)0.4515.57 (0.56–54.98)0.1418.98 (0.94–85.86)0.057
 January0.39 (0.11–1.30)0.1276.06 (0.68–53.96)0.10611.34 (1.27–101.27)0.030a
 February0.26 (0.07–0.98)0.047a5.36 (0.58–48.94)0.13725.32 (2.68–238.69)0.005a
Age (in months)
  < 61 1 1 
 7–121.70 (0.39–7.33)0.4710.19 (0.04–0.90)0.037a1.26 (0.32–4.87)0.738
 13–241.64 (0.31–8.49)0.5530.07 (0.01–0.42)0.004a1.42 (0.31–6.45)0.649
 25–363.28 (0.23–45.27)0.3740.10 (0.01–1.21)0.0700.89 (0.09–8.20)0.925
 37–606.04 (0.33–107.97)0.2210.04 (0.01–0.73)0.029a0.47 (0.03–5.74)0.556
Sex
 Male11 1 
 Female1.09 (0.52–2.26)0.8170.90 (0.42–1.90)0.7911.59 (0.80–3.12)0.179
Parent’s occupation
 Agriculture0.40 (0.13–1.21)0.1071.09 (0.31–3.86)0.8862.62 (0.90–7.66)0.077
 Service0.55 (0.15–1.96)0.3591.30 (0.32–5.29)0.7071.92 (0.53–6.90)0.318
 Business0.82 (0.24–2.82)0.7591.35 (0.36–4.96)0.6510.70 (0.21–2.34)0.569
 Others1 1 1 
Breast feed
 No0.30 (0.04–2.11)0.2301.63 (0.34–7.72)0.5341.18 (0.29–4.74)0.814
 Yes1 1 1 
Water source
 Non-pipe borne1 1 1 
 Pipe borne0.70 (0.27–1.75)0.4480.95 (0.39–2.30)0.9241.00 (0.45–2.22)0.997
Drinking water
 Untreated1 1 1 
 Boiled0.81 (0.28–2.28)0.6950.64 (0.21–1.94)0.4381.47 (0.55–3.89)0.436
 Filtered0.24 (0.03–1.56)0.13700.9984.45 (0.92–21.33)0.062
 Chlorinated0.70 (0.22–2.22)0.5500.78 (0.25–2.46)0.6811.45 (0.50–4.16)0.487
Soil contact
 No soil contact1.86 (0.35–9.84)0.4600.06 (0.01–0.47)0.008a3.02 (0.62–14.73)0.171
 Infrequently1.39 (0.51–3.75)0.5100.49 (0.18–1.33)0.1621.01 (0.41–2.42)0.990
 Frequently1 1 1 
Hygiene
 Poor1 1 1 
 Good0.45 (0.16–1.24)0.1250.97 (0.33–2.80)0.9641.01 (0.40–2.55)0.973
Parent’s education level
 Illiterate00.99900.99900.999
 Literate0.57 (0.19–1.72)0.3240.78 (0.24–2.53)0.6872.12 (0.72–6.22)0.169
 Higher level1 1 1 
  1. AOR Adjusted odds ratio, 95% CI 95% confidence interval, 1 = Reference, P < 0.05 was considered significant,a = significant