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Table 2 Meta-analysis main results and sub-group analyses

From: Do NICU developmental care improve cognitive and motor outcomes for preterm infants? A systematic review and meta-analysis

Analysis TypeNumber of trialsSMD (95% CI)P valueI square
MDI on 12 months of age (intervention versus control)
 Primary analysis110.55 (0.23 to 0.87)0.001a71.61%
Subgroup analysis by risk of bias
 low risk studies40.62 (− 0.07 to 1.30)1 = 0.06b1 = 86.72%
 high risk studies70.56 (0.22 to 0.90)2 = 0.004a2 = 50.40%
Subgroup analysis by intervention date (year)
  ≤ 200050.91 (0.63 to 1.19)1 = 0a1 = 0
  > 200060.26 (− 0.10 to 0.63)2 = 0.1612 = 65.2%
Subgroup analysis with intervention type
 NIDCAP70.83 (0.33 to 1.32)1 = 0.001a1 = 77.5%
 Environmental2−0.03 (− 0.47 to 0.40)2 = 0.8842 = 0
 Others20.29 (−0.26 to 0.84)3 = 0.3033 = 58.5%
Subgroup analysis with method of intervention delivery
 Nurse20.58 (− 0.51 to 1.67)1 = 0.2951 = 87%
 Nurse/ Mother70.74 (0.28 to 1.20)2 = 0.002a2 = 74.7%
 Environmental2- 0.03 (− 0.47 to 0.40)3 = 0.8843 = 0
Subgroup analysis by Birth weight
  ≤ 1250 g30.68(− 0.06 to 1.42)1 = 0.071b1 = 78.9
  > 1250 g30.74 (− 0.16 to 1.64)2 = 0.172 = 77.6
Subgroup analysis by Gestational age
  ≤ 28 w40.64 (0.06 to 1.22)1 = 0.031*1 = 71.5%
  > 28 w70.49 (0.09 to 0.89)2 = 0.016a2 = 71.5%
Subgroup analysis by assessment time
 9 m70.85 (0.45 to 1.25)1 = 0a1 = 60.1%
 12 m40.05 (− 0.15 to 0.26)2 = 0.6072 = 0
PDI on12 months of age (intervention versus control)
 Primary analysis110.33 (0.08 to 0.57)0.013*I = 52.41%
Subgroup analysis by risk of bias
 low risk40.33 (0.07 to 0.58)1 = 0.039a1 = 19.41%
 high risk70.26 (− 0.09 to 0.61)2 = 0.1922 = 52.96%
Subgroup analysis by intervention date
  ≤ 200050.47 (0.07 to 0.87)1 = 0.021a1 = 48.3%
  > 200060.22(−0.10 to 0.55)2 = 0.1782 = 56.1%
Subgroup analysis by intervention type
 NIDCAP70.52 (0.14 to 0.90)1 = 0.007a1 = 62.9%
 Environmental2−0.19 (−0.63 to 0.24)2 = 0.3842 = 0
 Others20.29 (− 0.01 to 0.58)3 = 0.055b3 = 0
Subgroup analysis by method of delivery
 Nurse20.52 (0.01 to 1.04)1 = 0.047a1 = 50.4%
 Nurse/Mother70.41 (0.05 to 0.77)2 = 0.025a2 = 60.1%
 Environmental2−0.19(−0.63 to 0.24)3 = 0.3843 = 0
Subgroup analysis by Birth weight
  ≤ 1250 g30.39(−0.24 to 1.02)1 = 0.2281 = 72.6%
  > 1250 g30.38 (−0.47 to 1.23)2 = 0.3832 = 76.2%
Subgroup analysis by Gestational age
  ≤ 28 w40.36(−0.24 to 0.95)1 = 0.2431 = 73.8%
  > 28 w70.28 (0.01 to 0.55)2 = 0.043a2 = 40.9%
Subgroup analysis by assessment time
 9 m70.53 (0.15 to 0.90)1 = 0.006a1 = 56.6%
 12 m40.13(−0.10 to 0.35)2 = 0.2762 = 9.5%
MDI on 24 months of age (Intervention versus control)
 Primary analysis60.15(−0.05 to 0.35)0.15I = 18.09%
Subgroup analysis by risk of bias
 low risk40.14(−0.08 to 0.37)1 = 0.2481 = 29.11%
 high risk20.21(− 0.29 to 0.70)2 = 0.4312 = 0
Subgroup analysis by intervention date
  ≤ 200020.53 (0.12 to 0.93)1 = 0.011a1 = 0
  > 200040.05 (−0.14 to 0.24)2 = 0.6122 = 0
Subgroup analysis by intervention type
 NIDCAP30.19(−0.09 to 0.48)1 = 0.1871 = 20.1
 Environmental10.01(−0.62 to 0.63)2 = 0.9862 = −---
 Others20.19(−0.40 to 0.78)3 = 0.5313 = 76.6
Subgroup analysis by method of delivery
 Nurse1−0.09(− 0.42 to 0.24)1 = 0.5951 = −---
 Nurse/ Mother40.27 (0.01 to 0.54)2 = 0.042a2 = 26.7%
 Environmental10.01 (−0.62 to 0.63)3 = 0.9863 = −---
Subgroup analysis by Birth weight
  ≤ 1250 g30.33 (0.06 to 0.60)1 = 0.016a1 = 0
  > 1250 g30(−0.23 to 0.23)2 = 0.9972 = 1.6%
Subgroup analysis by Gestational age
  ≤ 28 w30.28 (−0.03 to 0.59)1 = 0.072a1 = 0
  > 28 w30.10 (−0.22 to 0.43)2 = 0.5292 = 56%
Subgroup analysis by assessment time
 18 m20.24(−0.09 to 0.57)1 = 0.1581 = 0
 24 m40.15(−0.15 to 0.46)2 = 0.5292 = 48.4%
PDI on 24 months of age (Intervention versus Control)
 Primary analysis60.15 (−0.02 to 0.32)0.089b0
Subgroup analysis by risk of bias
 low risk40.20 (0.01 to 0.38)1 = 0.037a1 = 0
 high risk2−0.19(−0.68 to 0.31)2 = 0.4602 = 0
Subgroup analysis by intervention date
  ≤ 200020.19(−0.41 to 0.79)1 = 0.5351 = 44%
  > 200040.12(−0.07 to 0.32)2 = 0.2032 = 0
Subgroup analysis by intervention type
 NIDCAP30.08(−0.16 to 0.32)1 = 0.5161 = 0
 Environmental1−0.17(− 0.79 to 0.46)2 = 0.6022 = −---
 Others20.30 (0.03 to 0.57)3 = 0.032a3 = 0
Subgroup analysis by method of delivery
 Nurse10.23 (− 0.10 to 0.57)1 = 0.1691 = −--
 Nurse / Mother40.15(− 0.07 to 0.38)2 = 0.1752 = 5.3%
 Environmental1- 0.17(−0.79 to 0.46)3 = 0.6023 = −--
Subgroup analysis by birth weight
  ≤ 1250 g30.23(− 0.06 to 0.52)1 = 0.1151 = 9.5%
  > 1250 g02 = −--2 = −--
Subgroup analysis by Gestational age
  ≤ 28 w30.09(−0.22 to 0.40)1 = 0.5711 = 0
  > 28 w30.18(−0.04 to 0.41)2 = 0.1102 = 10.6%
Subgroup analysis by assessment time
 18 m20.12(−0.27 to 0.51)1 = 0.5531 = 22.4
 24 m40.15(−0.05 to 0.36)2 = 0.1102 = 3.3%
  1. Significance level at 0.05a
  2. Significance level at 0.1b