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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies

From: Do NICU developmental care improve cognitive and motor outcomes for preterm infants? A systematic review and meta-analysis

Author, YearCountryInclusion CriteriaGestational Age at birth(w) (Mean (SD))Birth Weight(g) (Mean (SD))Number of participants (Intervention, Control) (n)Intervention MethodIntervention DeliveryIntervention IntensityDevelopmental results
Abou Turk, 2009 [45]USABW: 401–1500 gC: 26.5 (1.7)I: 25.7 (1.7)C: 924 (216)I: 806 (236)34 (18,16)Noise reductionNurseContinuousMDI: better in intervention PDI: ND
Als, 1994 [46]USAGA: 24–30 wBW: < 1250 gC: 26.5 (1.4)I: 27.1 (1.6)NS38 (20,18)NIDCAPNurse/MotherContinuousMDI: better in intervention PDI: better in intervention
Als, 2004 [47]USAGA: (28w + 4 d) – (33w + 3 d)C: 31.83 (1.47)I: 31.22 (1.39)C: 1730 (350)I: 1648 (232)33 (18,15)NIDCAPNurse/MotherContinuousMDI: better in intervention PDI: better in intervention
Als, 2011 [48]USASevere IUGRGA: 28–33 wC: 31.69 (2.39)I: 32.06 (2.28)C: 1122 (336)I: 1083 (343)30 (12,18)NIDCAPNurse/MotherContinuousMDI: better in intervention PDI: ND
Als,2012 [49]USASevere IUGR
GA: (26w + 4d) - (33w + 3d)
C: 30.40 (1.91)I: 30.76 (2.78)C: 1048 (250)I: 997 (324)30 (13,17)NIDCAPNurse/MotherContinuousMDI: better in intervention PDI: ND
Ariagno, 1997 [50]USAGA: ≤ 30 w BW: ≤1250gC: 26.1 (1.8) I: 26.4 (2.1)C: 811.7 (210.8) I: 884.1 (182.0)35 (17,18)NIDCAPNurse/MotherContinuousMDI: ND PDI: ND
Brandon, 2017 [51]USAGA: ≤28 wC: 26.3 (1.5) I: 26.3 (1.4)C: 872.7 (232.7)
I: 874.1 (219.7)
121 (63,58)Cycled light eNurseCycled light kMDI: NDP DI: ND
Brown, 1980 [52]USAGA: ≤ 37 BW: 1000–1750 aC:31.1 (2.9)I: 31.8 (2.4)C: 1506 (216)I: 1564 (217)NSInfant stimulation, Mother trainingNurse-5 days/week- twice daily -30 min/sessionMDI: ND PDI: ND
Fajardo, 1992 [53] [54]USAGA: <  31 BW: <  1300 g + AGAC: 29.75 (28–31)I: 28.75 (26–30)C: 1108 (680–1290)I: 1052 (817–1300)24 (12,12)Reduce patterned stimuli fNurse4 weeks from 32 to 36 weeks PCAMDI: ND PDI: better in good state organizer
Feeley, 2012 [55]CanadaBW: <  1500 gC: 27.9 (2.2) I: 28.0 (2.3)C: 979.5 (221.6)
I: 982.2 (284.1)
122 (61,61)Cues and Care trialMother1–2 sessions/ week
l
Bayley III:
Cognitive: ND Motor: ND Language: ND
Guyer, 2012 [56]SwitzerlandGA: ≤32 0/7C: 29.5 (2.1)I: 30.6 (0.95)C: 1284 (346) I: 1439 (299)37 (17,20)Cycled lightingNurseCycled light mMDI: NDPDI: ND
Kramer, 1975 [57]USAGA: <  38 BW: <  1800C: 33 I: 33C: 1418 I: 144114 (8,6)Touch, in the form of extra tactile stimulationNurse- Daily for at least 2 weeks − 48 min/sessionAt transfer to crib MDI: better in interventionPDI: ND
At 6 weeks and 3 months: MDI: NDPDI: ND
Maguire Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed, 2009 [58]NetherlandsGA: < 32C: 29.1 (1.9)I: 29.5 (1.6)C: 1238.5 (337.2)I: 1248.4 (338.1)192 (98,94)Basic developmental care gHealthcare professionalsContinuousAt 12 monthsMDI: ND
PDI: better in intervention At 24 months MDI: ND PDI: ND
Maguire PEDIATRICS, 2009 [59]NetherlandsGA: < 32C: 29.3 (1.6)I: 29.6 (1.5)C: 1247 (340)I: 1263 (311)168 (84,84)NIDCAPNurse/MotherContinuousMDI: ND PDI: ND
McAnulty, 2009 [60]USAGA: < 29 BW: < 1250 bC: 26.20 (1.42) I: 30.3 (6.2)C: 837 (135) I: 850 (157)107 (56,51)NIDCAPNurse/MotherContinuousMDI: better in intervention PDI: better in intervention
Parker, 1992 [61]USAGA: ≤ 36C: 33.4 (2.4) I: 30.3 (6.2)C: 1687 (356) I: 1368 (410)41 (56,51)hinfant-development specialist-4 times (2–6 sessions)/ weekAt 4 months MDI: better in intervention PDI: better in intervention At 8 months MDI: better in intervention PDI: ND
Peters, 2009 [62]CanadaGA: ≤ 32 BW: 500–1250C: 27.0 (2.3)I: 27.5 (1.4)C: 927.1 (204.0) I: 988.2 (183.7)120 (60,60)NIDCAPNurse/MotherContinuousMDI: ND PDI: ND
Powell, 1974 [63]USABW: 1000–2000 g cNSdNSHandlingHealthcare professionals/MothernAt 2 month MDI: NDPDI: ND At 4 months MDI: better in intervention PDI: better in intervention
At 6 months MDI: ND PDI: ND
Procianoy, 2010 [64]BrazilGA: ≤32 BW: 750–1500C: 29.7 (1.62)I: 30.0 (1.55)C: 1151 (198)I: 1192 (189)104 (52,52)Massage therapyMother observation-Four times daily-15 min/sessionMDI: better in intervention PDI: ND
Szajnberg, 1987 [65]USAAGA GA: 28–32 wC: 24.3 I: 25.7NS25 (12,13)mother-infant observation iMother observation-Only one session 30–40 min intervention at 34 weeks of ageMDI: ND PDI: ND
Welch, 2015 [66]USAGA: 26–34 wC: 30.7 (2.6) I: 30.8 (2.1)C: 1474 (439) I: 1426 (3960150 (78, 72)FNI jtrained NICU nursesoBayley III: cognitive: better in intervention if score above 85 language: better in intervention if score above 85 motor: ND
  1. aBlack mother. b Mechanical ventilation within the first 3 h and for > 24 h in the first 48 h. c Black infants . d The stimulated Ss had a slightly higher average birth weight (1769 g as opposed to 1674 g), and a greater proportion of males (53% males as opposed to 37% male). e start at 28 versus 36 weeks PMA. f Introduce a defined day- night cycle, Emphasize state contingent nursing care. g incubator covers and positioning aids. h Enhance a mother’s ability to provide a more stimulating and nurturing environment . I mothers observation of Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale that performed on their own infants. j facilitating an emotional connection between mother and premature infants. k 11-h-on, 11-h-off pattern. l 5 sessions in NICU + 1 session in Post NICU, 45 to 75 min/session. m 12-h-on, 12-houroff pattern. n Twice daily (72 h to regain the birth weight), Once daily (regain the birth weight to discharge), 20 min/ session . o Nurture Specialists facilitated FNI during mother after delivery (mean of 7 days). Nurture Specialists met with FNI mothers an average of 6.4 h/week to facilitate calming sessions
  2. C Control, I Intervention, GA Gestational age, BW Body weight, W Week, G Gram; IUGR Intrauterine Growth Restriction AGA Adequate for gestational age, NS Not specified, Bayley II, MDI (Mental Developmental Index), PDI (psychomotor developmental index) subscales, Bayley III Cognitive, language, motor subscales, PCA Post Conceptional Age, NIDCAP Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program FNI, Family nurture intervention; ND, No difference; NICU Neonatal Intensive Care Unit