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Table 3 Final models: associations of explanatory factors and children’s sedentary time (min/h) in multilevel linear regression models

From: Individual-, home- and preschool-level correlates of preschool children’s sedentary time

Level of influenceVariable nameβLower 95% CIUpper 95% CIp-value
Individual levelGender−1.07−1.61−0.520.001
Surgency−0.60−0.92− 0.270.001
Effortful control0.24−0.160.640.232
Home level
 Parental beliefs and attitudesParental self-efficacy for activating children to physical activity (PA)0.18−0.240.610.403
Parental self-efficacy for limiting children’s screen time0.35−0.050.740.085
Parental perceived barriers related to children’s outside PA0.350.030.670.032
 Parenting practicesFrequent co-visits in PA places−0.14−0.26−0.030.014
Preschool level
 Principals’ beliefs and attitudesPrincipals’ personal interest in health (ref: neither agree or disagree)
 Somewhat agree−0.18−3.583.210.916
Strongly agree0.26−3.113.640.879
Principals’ beliefs of unhealthy energy balance-related behaviors (EBRBs) as a problem0.70−0.361.760.200
 Organizational policies and practicesFrequency of visits in PA places−0.20−0.440.040.104
Guidance for families policy0.05−0.350.450.817
 Additional fixed factorsPreschool time−0.02−
Measurement season2.711.773.650.001
  1. CI Confidence interval, PA Physical activity, EBRBs Energy balance-related behaviors, SES Socioeconomic status