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Table 2 Associations of each explanatory factor and children’s sedentary time (min/h) in multilevel linear regression models

From: Individual-, home- and preschool-level correlates of preschool children’s sedentary time

Level of influenceVariable nameβLower 95% CIUpper 95% CIp-valueN
Individual levelGender−0.98−1.47− 0.490.000718
Age0.09−0.170.360.497718
BMI−0.00− 0.050.050.945684
Surgency−0.81−1.11−0.500.000658
Negative affectivity0.11−0.200.410.497658
Effortful control0.690.311.080.000658
Home level
 Parental beliefs and attitudesParental self-efficacy for activating child for physical activity (PA)−0.09− 0.18−0.010.036709
Parental self-efficacy for limiting children’s screen time0.07−0.000.130.052712
Parental attitude on importance of physical activity (ref: somewhat disagree)
 Neither agree or disagree−0.51−2.531.510.619715
Somewhat agree−0.63−2.491.220.503
Strongly agree−1.09−2.950.760.248
Parental attitude on societal pressures regarding screen time−0.00−0.090.080.960710
Parental perceived barriers related to children’s outside PA0.130.060.020.001711
Parental beliefs of unhealthy energy balance-related behaviors (EBRBs) as a problem−0.07−0.470.320.724712
 Parenting practicesRules for limiting children’s screen time0.43−0.191.040.173685
Parental practice on allowing child to run around inside0.09−0.230.400.586715
Parental screen use in front of children (ref: high parental screen use)
 Low−0.47−1.140.200.171714
Middle−0.56− 1.220.110.103
Parental physical activity in front of children−0.09−0.310.130.420717
Frequent co-visits in PA places−0.12−0.12− 0.040.002717
Mother’s educational level (ref: highly educated)     
 Low0.16−0.530.840.499711
Middle−0.21−0.810.400.648
Preschool level
 Principals’ beliefs and attitudesPrincipals’ personal interest in health (ref: neither disagree or agree)
 Somewhat agree0.54−0.221.290.162654
Strongly agree1.070.441.700.001
Principals’ attitude on the importance of increasing children’s physical activity0.02−1.341.370.982665
Principals’ attitude on the importance of decreasing children’s sedentary time−0.23−2.241.770.820665
Principals’ self-efficacy for influencing children’s behaviors−0.18−0.810.450.570638
Principals’ beliefs of unhealthy EBRBs as a problem0.810.121.510.021659
Organizational policies and practicesFrequency of visits in PA places−0.19−0.37− 0.010.047665
Screen-time policy0.16−0.030.350.103665
Guidance for families policy−0.21− 0.38−0.040.039665
Healthy PA policy0.06−0.040.130.200665
Active play possibility during free play0.29−0.481.060.466674
Preschool neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) (ref: high neighborhood SES)Low0.62−0.651.890.339718
Middle0.32−0.731.370.554
  1. CI Confidence interval, PA Physical activity, EBRBs Energy balance-related behaviors, SES Socioeconomic status