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Table 5 The performance of the clinical features of measles as a diagnostic tool – positive predictive value, negative predicitve value, Mc Nemar and Kappa tests

From: An evaluation of the clinical features of measles virus infection for diagnosis in children within a limited resources setting

Clinical featuresPPV (%)(95% CI)NPV (%)(95% CI)Mc Nemar (p)Kappa (p)
F + M + H93.2 (84.1–97.5)22.2 (3.95–59.8)0.7740.119
F + M + B + H92.4 (82.5–97.2)12.5 (2.2–39.6)0.0640.527
F + M + C + H91.9 (81.5–97.0)10.0 (0.2–33.1)0.0110.788
F + M + K + H86.1 (69.7–94.8)4.3 (0.8–16.1)< 0.0010.125
F + M + B + C + H90.9 (79.3–96.7)12.5 (1.3–25.8)0.0640.527
F + M + B + C + K + H84.4 (66.5–94.1)4.3 (0.7–14.9)< 0.0010.125
F + M + B91.8 (82.4–96.7)11.1 (0.6–49.3)0.7910.770
F + M + C90.0 (79.9–95.6)00.3590.252
F + M + K85.4 (70.1–93.9)2.4 (0.1–14.4)< 0.0010.048
F + M + B + C90.2 (79.2–95.9)4.8 (0.2–25.9)0.0090.027
F + M + B + C + K86.1 (69.7–94.8)4.3 (0.8–16.1)< 0.0010.125
  1. PPV positive predictive value, NPV negative predictive value, F fever, M maculopapular rash, B cough, C coryza, K conjunctivitis, H hyperpigmented rash, CI confidence interval. McNemar and Kappa tests considered significant only if p < 0.05