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Table 3 Bivariate associations of selected sociodemographic characteristics with patterns of risk behavior initial engagementa

From: Initial engagement and persistence of health risk behaviors through adolescence: longitudinal findings from urban South Africa

  Males Females
Low risk
(n = 169)
Moderate risk
(n = 159)
High risk
(n = 172)
p-valueb Low risk
(n = 131)
Moderate risk
(n = 342)
High risk
(n = 98)
p-valueb
Maternal years of schooling 9.58 (2.6) 9.87 (2.6) 9.61 (2.4) 0.53 9.7 (2.5) 9.64 (3.0) 9.8 (2.4) 0.89
Maternal age at birth 26.08 (6.4) 25.43 (6.3) 26.17 (6.7) 0.54 26.13 (6.2) 25.85 (6.4) 26.15 (6.5) 0.87
Marital status
 Single/Separated/Divorced 110 (65%) 105 (66%) 100 (58%) 0.26 83 (63%) 234 (69%) 62 (63%) 0.37
 Partnered 59 (35%) 54 (34%) 72 (42%)   48 (37%) 105 (31%) 36 (37%)  
Asset tertile in early life
 1 58 (41%) 53 (42%) 64 (46%) 0.76 49 (43%) 115 (41%) 25 (32%) 0.06
 2 28 (20%) 30 (24%) 27 (19%)   37 (33%) 78 (28%) 19 (24%)  
 3 55 (39%) 42 (34%) 48 (35%)   27 (24%) 90 (32%) 35 (44%)  
Early life assets imputed
 0 145 (86%) 145 (91%) 146 (85%) 0.18 107 (82%) 290 (85%) 83 (85%) 0.70
 1 24 (14%) 14 (9%) 26 (15%)   24 (18%) 52 (15%) 15 (15%)  
Asset tertile at age 7 y
 1 67 (47%) 55 (42%) 56 (39%) 0.58 50 (44%) 115 (38%) 34 (42%) 0.06
 2 34 (24%) 36 (28%) 46 (32%)   33 (29%) 84 (28%) 12 (15%)  
 3 41 (29%) 39 (30%) 41 (29%)   30 (27%) 102 (34%) 34 (42%)  
Age 7 asset source
 assets from Y7 140 (99%) 129 (99%) 140 (98%) 0.66 108 (96%) 284 (94%) 75 (94%) 0.84
 assets from Y5 2 (1%) 1 (1%) 3 (2%)   5 (4%) 17 (6%) 5 (6%)  
Child stress
 Above median stressful events never 73 (46%) 67 (46%) 66 (42%) 0.43 43 (36%) 140 (43%) 41 (46%) 0.54
 Above median stressful events 1X 50 (31%) 57 (39%) 56 (36%)   48 (40%) 120 (37%) 33 (37%)  
 Above median stressful events 2 or 3X 36 (23%) 23 (16%) 35 (22%)   29 (24%) 67 (20%) 15 (17%)  
Number of stress measures
 Attended 1 study visit 26 (16%) 36 (24%) 23 (15%) 0.19 19 (16%) 60 (18%) 19 (21%) 0.88
 Attended 2 study visits 73 (46%) 57 (39%) 75 (48%)   59 (49%) 158 (48%) 43 (48%)  
 Attended 3 study visits 60 (38%) 54 (37%) 59 (38%)   42 (35%) 109 (33%) 27 (30%)  
  1. a Presented as N (%) or mean ± SD
  2. b Chi-square p-values testing differences across patterns of risk behavior initial engagement