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Table 3 Mixed effects analysis of the relationship between CBCL and colic and sleep problems

From: Association between colic and sleep problems in infancy and subsequent development, emotional and behavioral problems: a longitudinal study

  CBCL
Variable B 95% CI p-values
Colic
Internalizing
 Time    
 Baseline (18 months) ref   
  3 years 0.15 0.11 to 0.18 < 0.01
  5 years 0.17 0.12 to 0.21 < 0.01
Externalizing
 Time    
 Baseline (18 months) ref   
  3 years −0.06 −0.09 to − 0.03 < 0.01
  5 years − 0.05 - 0.08 to − 0.01 < 0.01
Sleep durationa
Internalizing
 Time    
 Baseline (18 months) ref   
  3 years 0.14 0.07 to 0.21 < 0.01
  5 years 0.15 0.05 to 0.25 < 0.01
Externalizing
 Time    
 Baseline (18 months) ref   
  3 years −0.21 −0.28 to −0.15 < 0.01
  5 years −0.11 − 0.18 to 0.04 < 0.01
Frequent nocturnal awakenings b
Internalizing
 Time    
 Baseline (18 months) ref   
  3 years 0.06 0.05 to 0.07 < 0.01
  5 years 0.06 0.04 to 0.08 < 0.01
Externalizing
 Time    
 Baseline (18 months)    
  3 years −0.09 −0.10 to −0.08 < 0.01
  5 years −0.09 − 0.11 to − 0.09 < 0.01
Easy to put to bed c
Internalizing
 Time    
 Baseline (18 months) ref   
  3 years 0.18 0.15 to 0.21 < 0.01
  5 years 0.16 0.12 to 0.20 < 0.01
Externalizing
 Time    
 Baseline (18 months) ref   
  3 years −0.18 −0.21 to −0.16 < 0.01
  5 years −0.19 − 0.22 to − 0.16 < 0.01
  1. *Adjusted for ICQ. Mother’s education, mother’s age
  2. aSleep duration: Hours of sleep per day
  3. bFrequent nocturnal awakenings: Usually wakes during the night
  4. cEasy to put to bed: Easy to put to bed and falls asleep quickly