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Table 4 Differences in HGS and PSs measurements (kg) in terms of the hand dominance among genders, and age groups, where by Mean ± SD (Min-Max)

From: Analysis of hand-forearm anthropometric components in assessing handgrip and pinch strengths of school-aged children and adolescents: a partial least squares (PLS) approach

Age group (years) Number Hand HGS Tip to tip Key three-jaw chuck
Boys
7–10 451 D 12.8 ± 2.6 (7.1–19.3) 3.3 ± 0.8 (1.6–4.8) 5.1 ± 1.0 (3.2–6.7) 4.1 ± 0.8 (1.8–6.4)
ND 11.7 ± 2.4 (6.6–18.7) 3.1 ± 0.8 (1.5–4.2) 4.7 ± 0.9 (3.3–6.5) 3.7 ± 0.9 (1.9–5.7)
11–14 435 D 24.1 ± 4.2 (13.4–37.0) 4.5 ± 1.0 (2.8–6.1) 7.3 ± 1.0 (5.0–9.2) 6.1 ± 1.1 (3.2–8.4)
ND 22.4 ± 4.2 (13.0–33.7) 4.1 ± 1.2 (2.7–5.8) 6.6 ± 1.2 (4.3–9.0) 5.4 ± 1.2 (3.0–7.8)
15–18 505 D 39.5 ± 4.0 (29.3–48.7) 6.2 ± 1.5 (3.9–8.1) 9.8 ± 1.5 (7.1–11.3) 8.0 ± 1.4 (4.8–10.1)
ND 36.8 ± 4.2 (27.3–45.1) 5.6 ± 1.4 (3.1–7.6) 8.7 ± 1.4 (7.3–10.2) 7.1 ± 1.4 (5.0–9.7)
Total 1391 D 25.5 ± 3.6 (7.1–48.7) 4.7 ± 1.0 (1.6–8.1) 7.4 ± 1.1 (3.2–11.3) 6.0 ± 1.1 (1.8–10.1)
ND 23.6 ± 3.3 (6.6–45.1) 4.3 ± 1.1 (1.5–7.6) 6.7 ± 1.2 (3.3–10.2) 5.4 ± 1.0 (1.9–9.7)
Girls
7–10 357 D 11.3 ± 2.7 (6.1–18.4) 3.1 ± 0.8 (1.4–4.1) 4.6 ± 1.0 (3.0–6.2) 3.9 ± 1.0 (1.8–5.6)
ND 10.2 ± 2.9 (5.3–17.8) 2.8 ± 0.9 (1.3–3.7) 4.1 ± 0.9 (2.9–5.8) 3.5 ± 0.9 (1.9–5.3)
11–14 421 D 18.9 ± 3.7 (12.7–27.5) 4.1 ± 1.0 (2.5–5.6) 6.3 ± 1.2 (4.3–8.8) 5.5 ± 1.1 (3.8–7.7)
ND 17.8 ± 3.4 (13.0–29.2) 3.7 ± 1.1 (2.6–5.2) 5.7 ± 1.1 (4.5–8.0) 4.9 ± 1.0 (3.2–8.0)
15–18 468 D 23.7 ± 3.3 (17.7–30.4) 4.8 ± 0.9 (2.9–6.3) 7.6 ± 1.2 (4.6–9.4) 6.5 ± 1.0 (4.3–9.1)
ND 22.1 ± 3.4 (16.5–29.8) 4.3 ± 0.8 (2.6–6.0) 6.8 ± 1.3 (4.9–9.0) 5.8 ± 1.1 (3.9–8.6)
Total 1246 D 17.8 ± 3.0 (6.1–30.4) 4.0 ± 0.9 (1.4–6.3) 6.1 ± 1.1 (3.0-9.4) 5.3 ± 1.0 (1.8–9.1)
ND 16.5 ± 3.1 (5.3–29.8) 3.6 ± 0.9 (1.3-6.0) 5.5 ± 1.1 (2.9-9.0) 4.8 ± 1.0 (1.9–8.6)
  1. Data are Means ± SD (Minimum–Maximum)