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Table 4 Risk factors associated with IVH in univariable and multivariable analysis (N = 120)

From: Intraventricular haemorrhage in a Ugandan cohort of low birth weight neonates: the IVHU study

Risk factor Risk factor present
n (%)
No IVH
(N = 79)
n (%)
Any IVH
(N = 41)
n (%)
Unadjusted OR (95% CI) Adjusted OR (95% CI)
Antepartum
 Multiple pregnancy 47 (39.2) 34 (43.0) 13 (31.7) 0.61 (0.27–1.3) 0.54 (0.23–1.22)
 Maternal HIV 7 (5.8) 3 (3.8) 4 (9.8) 2.59 (0.54–13.76) 1.90 (0.38–10.41)
 Antepartum steroids (2 doses) 6 (5.0) 6 (7.6) 0 (0) 0 (0–6.19) 0 (0–1.05)
 Antepartum steroids (any doses) 54 (45) 39 (49.4) 15 (36.6) 0.55 (0.25–1.20) 0.63 (0.27–1.47)
Intrapartum
 Vaginal delivery 98 (81.7) 60 (75.9) 38 (92.7) 4.011 (1.26–17.89) 3.50 (1.01–16.45)
 Outborn 56 (46.7) 39 (49.4) 17 (41.5) 1.376 (0.65–2.98) 1.87 (0.80–4.57)
Neonatal
 Male 60 (50.0) 41 (52.9) 19 (346.3) 0.80 (0.37–1.70) 0.69 (0.15–3.12)
 Admission weight < 1500 ga 62 (51.7) 38 (48.1) 24 58.5) 1.52 (0.71–3.30) 0.67 (0.15–2.93)
 Gestation < 32 weeksb 41 (34.2) 27 (34.2) 14 (34.1) 1.00 (0.45–2.27) 6.70 (1.6–31.02)
 SGA (<10th centile) 51 (42.5) 33 (41.8) 18 (43.9) 1.09 (0.50–2.36) 2.6 (0.79–9.42)
 Resuscitation at delivery 13 (10.8) 11 (13.9) 2 (4.9) 0.32 (0.05–1.26) 0.36 (0.05–1.47)
 Resuscitation in NU 10 (8.3) 3 (3.8) 7 (17.1) 5.22 (1.36–25.34) 5.10 (1.23–26.36)
 Respiratory distress within 4 h of admission 49 (40.8) 29 (36.7) 20 (48.8) 1.64 (0.76–3.55) 1.43 (0.581–3.48)
 bCPAP 38 (31.7) 20 (25.3) 18 (43.9) 2.31 (1.04–5.17) 2.09 (0.84–5.27)
 hsPDA 20 (16.7) 10 (12.7) 10 (24.4) 2.23 (0.83–5.97) 1.89 (0.68–5.24)
 Hypothermia (< 36 degrees) in 1st 24 h 84 (70.0) 53 (67.1) 31 (75.6) 1.46 (0.63–3.56) 1.17 (0.45–3.16)
 Hypoxia (< 90% saturation in air) at presentation 47 (39.2) 31 (39.2) 16 (39.0) 0.99 (0.45–2.15) 1.00 (0.43–2.33)
  1. aAdjusted for sex and gestational age, badjusted for sex and weight. All other variables adjusted for sex, gestational age and weight