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Table 4 Univariate results for FOCM/TS metabolites and vitamin E, folate, ferritin, B12, MMA, and MTHFR status

From: Altered metabolism of mothers of young children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: a case control study

Metabolite Test ASD-M (mean ± std)
N = 30
TD-M
(mean ± std)
N = 29
p-Values FDR AUC Ratio (ASD-M/TD-M)
B12 Δ MW 355 ± 196 473 ± 173 2.40E-03 0.00 0.73 0.75
fCysteine  Δ t= 23.8 ± 1.88 22.6 ± 1.94 0.01 0.00 0.70 1.06
Glu-Cys  Δ t= 1.89 ± 0.22 1.72 ± 0.24 0.01 0.00 0.69 1.10
SAM/SAH  Δ t= 1.94 ± 0.25 2.09 ± 0.20 0.01 0.00 0.67 0.93
fCystine  Δ t= 24.1 ± 2.78 22.4 ± 2.43 0.02 0.01 0.67 1.07
tCysteine t= 248 ± 23.1 234 ± 28.3 0.04 0.40 0.64 1.06
tGSH t= 6.23 ± 0.98 5.85 ± 1.07 0.15 1.00 0.63 1.07
SAM t= 47.2 ± 5.37 49.3 ± 5.76 0.15 1.00 0.62 0.96
Methionine t= 19.9 ± 2.56 20.8 ± 2.98 0.19 1.00 0.61 0.95
MTHFR mut. (A1298C) χ2    0.15 1.00 0.60  
tGSH/GSSG t= 29.5 ± 6.21 27.3 ± 6.06 0.18 1.00 0.60 1.08
Folate MW 17.6 ± 6.19 21.1 ± 9.17 0.20 1.00 0.60 0.83
Homocysteine MW 8.63 ± 0.98 8.27 ± 1.18 0.21 1.00 0.60 1.04
tGSH/GSSG t= 29.5 ± 6.21 27.3 ± 6.06 0.18 1.00 0.60 1.08
SAH t= 24.5 ± 2.66 23.6 ± 2.04 0.15 1.00 0.59 1.04
Vitamin D3‡ t= 27.1 ± 9.10 24.9 ± 6.08 0.27 1.00 0.57 1.09
Ferritin MW 35.1 ± 31.0 29.5 ± 26.1 0.36 1.00 0.57 1.19
Cys-Gly t= 38.7 ± 5.06 37.6 ± 6.38 0.46 1.00 0.57 1.03
Adenosine t= 0.22 ± 0.03 0.21 ± 0.03 0.28 1.00 0.55 1.04
fGSH/GSSG MW 8.73 ± 2.08 8.81 ± 1.84 0.49 1.00 0.55 0.99
% Oxidized GSH MW 0.19 ± 0.03 0.19 ± 0.04 0.49 1.00 0.55 1.01
Chlorotyrosine t= 26.8 ± 4.27 27.6 ± 4.23 0.51 1.00 0.55 0.97
Nitrotyrosine t ≠ 32.9 ± 6.28 33.7 ± 4.67 0.59 1.00 0.55 0.98
fGSH t= 1.85 ± 0.32 1.89 ± 0.35 0.62 1.00 0.55 0.98
fCystine/fCysteine t= 1.01 ± 0.11 1.00 ± 0.10 0.59 1.00 0.54 1.02
Vitamin E t= 9.23 ± 2.53 9.82 ± 3.22 0.75 1.00 0.54 0.94
Isoprostane (U)‡ MW 0.15 ± 0.10 0.18 ± 0.14 0.70 1.00 0.53 0.83
MTHFR mut. (C677T) χ2    0.90 1.00 0.53  
GSSG t= 0.22 ± 0.04 0.22 ± 0.03 0.93 1.00 0.52 1.00
MMA MW 0.15 ± 0.06 0.15 ± 0.08 0.64 1.00 0.51 0.96
  1. The measurements are ordered by decreasing AUC. Statistically significant metabolites with p-value ≤ 0.05 and FDR ≤ 0.1 are marked with Δ and ‡ indicates measurements that were left out of the classification procedure as the measurements were not collected from all mothers. Specifically, these were vitamin D with 28 mothers in ASD-M and 28 TD-M mothers and Isoprostane with 28 participants that were ASD-M and 25 mothers in TD-M. The abbreviated metabolites are defined as follows: S-Adenosylhomocysteine (SAH), S-Adenosylmethionine (SAM), glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), and Methylmalonic acid (MMA). The metabolite ratios include SAM/SAH, tGSH/GSSG, fGSH/GSSG, and percent oxidized GSH. The “f” and the “t” refer to free and total, respectively. The possible hypothesis tests were Mann-Whitney U (MW), Student’s t-test (t=), Chi-Squared test (χ2), and Welch’s test (t)