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Table 3 Anaemia prevalence and haemoglobin level of 6 months to under 5 years old children by age groups risk factors, Sudan, 2016

From: Anaemia prevalence and determinants in under 5 years children: findings of a cross-sectional population-based study in Sudan

Variables Anaemia prevalence in 6 months to under 2 years Anaemia prevalence in 2 to under 5 years p. value Anaemia prevalence (overall) Severe anaemia prevalence (overall) N
Mean haemoglobin (g/L)
Personal factors Age group
6 months - < 2 years Frequency NA NA NA 427/690 10/690 690
% NA NA NA 61.9% 1.4% 104.8 (14.5)
2 - < 5 years Frequency NA NA NA 1096/2404 40/2404 2404
% NA NA NA 45.6% 1.7% 109.1 (15.5)
p. value*   NA NA NA < 0.001 0.694 < 0.001
Gender
Male Frequency 215/325 580/1203 795/1528 32/1528 1528
% 66.2% 48.2% < 0.001 52.0% 2.1% 107.3 (16.1)
Female Frequency 212/365 516/1201 728/1566 18/1566 1566
% 58.1% 43.0% < 0.001 46.5% 1.1% 109.0 (14.7)
p. value*   0.290 0.010 0.002 0.045 0.002
Education factors Mother educational level
No formal education Frequency 112/177 270/547 382/724 10/724 724
% 63.3% 49.4% 0.001 52.8% 1.4% 107.2 (14.5)
primary education Frequency 127/201 311/673 438/874 7/874 874
% 63.2% 46.2% < 0.001 50.1% 0.8% 108.1 (14.4)
secondary education Frequency 35/57 91/206 126/263 3/263 263
% 61.4% 44.2% 0.021 47.9% 1.1% 108.5 (14.1)
above secondary education Frequency 17/28 34/85 51/113 1/113 113
% 60.7% 40.0% 0.056 45.1% 0.9% 110.2 (14.0)
p. value*   0.988 0.298 0.315 0.725 0.141
Mother frequently listen to the radio
No Frequency 205/330 510/1086 715/1416 17/1416 1416
% 62.1% 47.0% 0.001 50.5% 1.2% 107.2 (14.5)
Yes Frequency 83/130 205/440 288/570 5/570 570
% 63.8% 46.4% < 0.001 50.5% 0.9% 108.1 (14.4)
p. value*   0.731 0.895 0.990 0.641 0.867
Maternal factors Pregnancy status of the mother
Mother not pregnant Frequency 260/219 556/1208 816/1627 19/1627 1627
% 62.1% 46.0% < 0.001 50.2% 1.2% 108.0 (14.6)
Mother pregnant Frequency 22/34 131/271 153/305 2/305 305
% 64.7% 48.3% 0.072 50.2% 0.7% 108.4 (13.5)
p. value*   0.759 0.490 0.997 0.560 0.649
Anaemia status of the mother
Mother not anaemic Frequency 165/276 328/801 493/1077 12/1077 1077
% 59.8% 40.9% < 0.001 45.8% 1.1% 109.0 (14.3)
Mother anaemic Frequency 73/103 234/425 307/528 6/528 528
% 70.9% 55.1% 0.004 58.1% 1.1% 105.8 (14.2)
p. value*   0.047 < 0.001 < 0.001 1.000 < 0.001
Economic factors Size of the household
Less than 7 persons Frequency 315/510 812/1754 1127/2264 35/2264 2264
% 61.8% 46.3% < 0.001 49.8% 1.5% 107.9 (15.4)
7 persons or more Frequency 112/180 284/650 396/830 15/830 830
% 62.2% 43.7% < 0.001 47.7% 1.8% 109.0 (15.4)
p. value*   0.913 0.255 0.308 0.610 0.079
Wealth quintiles
Lowest Frequency 89/158 241/502 330/660 14/660 660
% 56.3% 48.0% 0.068 50.0% 2.1% 107.3 (16.4)
Second Frequency 79/148 244/515 323/663 13/663 663
% 53.4% 47.4% 0.198 48.7% 2.0% 108.0 (15.3)
Middle Frequency 95/142 208/491 303/633 11/633 633
% 66.9% 42.4% < 0.001 47.9% 1.7% 108.8 (16.0)
Fourth Frequency 95/131 236/502 331/633 5/633 633
% 72.5% 47.0% < 0.001 52.3% 0.8% 107.9 (14.2)
Highest Frequency 69/111 167/394 236/505 7/505 505
% 62.2% 42.4% < 0.001 46.7% 1.4% 108.8 (15.0)
p. value*   0.006 0.203 0.363 0.343 0.356
Child has health insurance
No health insurance Frequency 344/565 839/1796 1183/2361 39/2361 2361
% 60.9% 46.7% < 0.001 50.1% 1.7% 107.7 (15.4)
Has health insurance Frequency 83/125 257/608 340/733 11/733 733
% 66.4% 42.3% < 0.001 46.4% 1.5% 109.5 (15.3)
p. value*   0.251 0.057 0.078 0.868 0.008
Hygienic factors Drinking water source
piped source to house OR bottled water Frequency 53/82 127/298 180/380 5/380 380
% 64.6% 42.6% < 0.001 47.4% 1.3% 109.2 (16.0)
piped source to public area Frequency 141/231 369/771 510/1002 18/1002 1002
% 61.0% 47.9% < 0.001 50.9% 1.8% 107.6 (15.2)
open source Frequency 215/349 559/1230 774/1579 25/1579 1579
% 61.6% 45.4% < 0.001 49.0% 1.6% 108.1 (15.3)
p. value*   0.843 0.274 0.446 0.807 0.199
Sanitation facility type
safe sanitation facility Frequency 60/93 128/326 188/419 5/419 419
% 64.5% 39.3% < 0.001 44.9% 1.2% 109.0 (15.6)
unsafe sanitation facility Frequency 222/347 582/1299 804/1646 28/1646 1646
% 64.0% 44.8% < 0.001 48.8% 1.7% 108.4 (15.3)
unsafe sanitation - open defecation Frequency 138/238 364/739 502/977 17/977 977
% 58.0% 49.3% 0.019 51.4% 1.7% 107.4 (15.8)
p. value* Frequency 0.293 0.008 0.079 0.735 0.140
Malaria and infection factors Child had fever in the last 2 weeks
No fever Frequency 302/486 856/1913 1158/2399 25/2399 2399
% 62.1% 44.7% < 0.001 48.3% 1.0% 108.6 (14.7)
With fever Frequency 119/195 231/474 350/669 24/669 669
% 61.0% 48.7% 0.004 52.3% 3.6% 106.7 (17.7)
p. value*   0.787 0.119 0.064 < 0.001 0.004
Child malaria test
Negative Frequency 399/636 1007/2270 1406/2906 38/2906 2906
% 62.7% 44.4% < 0.001 48.4% 1.3% 108.5 (15.2)
Positive Frequency 12/18 89/133 101/151 12/151 151
% 66.7% 66.9% 0.983 66.9% 7.9% 101.0 (18.9)
p. value*   0.734 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001
Level of malaria transmission
Moderate transmission (PR2–10 = 10- < 50%) Frequency 75/117 202/441 277/558 17/558 558
% 64.1% 45.8% < 0.001 49.6% 3.0% 107.5 (16.5)
Low transmission (PR2–10 = < 10%) Frequency 352/573 894/1963 1246/2536 33/2536 2536
% 61.4% 45.5% < 0.001 49.1% 1.3% 108.3 (15.2)
p. value*   0.588 0.920 0.828 0.008 0.244
  1. N: total number of cases. NA Not applicable
  2. * p. value for categorical data (anaemia) is calculated based on Chi-square test and for continuous data (haemoglobin level) is based on ANOVA test