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Table 3 Description of intervention−/control activities

From: Motor-enriched learning for improving pre-reading and word recognition skills in preschool children aged 5–6 years – study protocol for the PLAYMORE randomized controlled trial

PROTOCOL 1 WEEK (EXAMPLE: WEEK 1)
Letters in focus: S, E, L, M, Å
Story: River Regatta
SESSION I
Activity Focus WM HM CG
Introduction
(5 min)
  While children are standing in acircle, the instructor introducesherself/himself and the interventionbriefly. Children’s names must beremembered. While children are sitting around thetable, the instructor introducesherself/himself and the interventionbriefly. Children’s names must beremembered. While the children are sitting at theirtable, the teacher introduces thecontrol intervention briefly.
Story telling
(5 min)
Presentationofthe weeklystory abouttheflying suitcase ”The next 8 weeks we are going toplay a lot with letters. I know, thatyou’ve already learned some lettersand that you are already very good atletters. But listen … this morning …”➔ a story about the flying suitcaseon river regatta is read aloud.
Materials:
Letter written by the flying suitcase
Suitcase
”The next 8 weeks we are going toplay a lot with letters. I know, thatyou’ve already learned some lettersand that you are already very good atletters. But listen … this morning …”➔ a story about the flying suitcaseon river regatta is read aloud.
Materials:
Letter written by the flying suitcase
Suitcase
”The next 8weeks we are going to playa lot with letters. I know, that you’vealready learned some letters and thatyou are already very good at letters.But listen … this morning …” ➔ astory about the flying suitcase onriver regatta is read aloud.
Materials:
Letter written by the flying suitcase
Suitcase
Activity I
(2 min)
Title:” Letterrhyme
Letter: S
Presentationofletter sound In continuation of the story, a letterrhyme with S/[s] is read aloud. Aletter rhyme consists of words ofwhich the majority begins with thesound in focus – in this case S/[s]. In continuation of the story, a letterrhyme with S/[s] is read aloud. Aletter rhyme consists of words ofwhich the majority begins with thesound in focus – in this case S/[s]. In continuation of the story, a letterrhyme with S/[s] is read aloud. Aletter rhyme consists of words ofwhich the majority begins with thesound in focus – in this case S/[s].
Activity II
(3 min)
Title:” Lettersound
Letter: S
Presentationand practice ofletter sound-movementcoupling While standing in a circle (markedwith six blackboard cloths), themovement-sound coupling,” bodyphoneme”, for the letter sound [s] isintroduced. The movement is practiced collectively while movingaround in a circle in the readingdirection.
Materials:
Six blackborad cloths placed in a circle
While sitting around the table, themovement-sound coupling,” handphoneme”, for the letter sound [s] isintroduced. The movement is practiced collectively in the readingdirection. (not part of control session)
Activity III
(2 min)
Title:” Symbol-soundcoupling
Letter: S
Couplingbetween lettersound andletter form The letter sound is here coupled tothe letter form. Children are askedwhat letter that is pronounced [s].When the letters S is identified,children are asked to draw threelarge S-letters on a large blackboardcloth attached to the floor. When thethree letters have been drawn, children are asked to trace the letterform until all children have completed the task.
Materials:
Six blackboard cloths placed in a circle
Six pieces of chalk
The letter sound is here coupled tothe letter form. Children are askedwhat letter that is pronounced [s].When the letters S is identified,children are asked to draw three S-letters on a small blackboard. Whenthe three letters have been drawn,children are asked to trace the letterform until all children have completed the task.
Materials:
Six small blackboards, one for each child
Six pieces of chalk
The letter sound is coupled to theletter form. Children are asked whatletter that is pronounced [s]. Whenthe letters S is identified, children areasked to write S-letters on a sheet ofpaper with guiding lines.
Materials:
Control sheet
Activity IV
(5 min)
Title: “Soundhunt
Letter: S
Identification ofletter sound Children are told to stand behind thethree large S-letters. Then words inwhich the [s] sound is in the beginning, in the middle or in the end ofthe word are said aloud by the instructor. Children are then asked toidentify the location of the sound (i.e.beginning, middle or end) and jumpto the one of the S-letters written onthe blackboard cloth and performthe body phoneme while saying thesound. Beginning: jump to the rightS-letter, middle: jump to the middleS-letter, end: jump to left S-letter
Materials:
Words with [s] in the beginning,middle or end. Six blackboard clothsplaced in a circle.
Children are told to place theblackboard with the three S-letters infrom of them. Then words in whichthe [s] sound is in the beginning, inthe middle or in the end of the wordare said aloud by the instructor. Children are then asked to identify thelocation of the sound (i.e. beginning,middle or end) and place a smallblock on one of the S-letters writtenon the blackboard and perform thehand phoneme while saying thesound. Beginning: place the brick onthe right S-letter, middle: place thebrick on the middle S-letter, end:place the brick on the left S-letter
Materials:
Words with [s] in the beginning,middle or end. Six small blackboardsand bricks.
Children have a task on the controlsheet with pictures representingwords in which the [s] sound is inthe beginning, in the middle or inthe end of the word. Below eachpicture are three boxes. Children areasked to identify the location of thesound (i.e. beginning, middle or end)and mark the correct box.
Beginning: the right box, middle: themiddle box, end: the left box
Materials:
Control sheet
Story telling
(1 min)
  The story about the flying suitcase onriver regatta is continued. The story about the flying suitcaseon river regatta is continued. The story about the flying suitcase onriver regatta is continued.
Activity I-III
(7 min)
Letter: E
See activity I-III In continuation of the story, a letterrhyme with E/[e] (simple sound) isread aloud and the [e] “bodyphoneme” are presented andpracticed. Children are asked to writethree large E-letters on the blackboard cloth (see description of activity I-III). “Sound hunt” is onlycompleted for the first letter sound(in this case S).
Materials:
See Activity I-III
In continuation of the story, a letterrhyme with E/[e] (simple sound) isread aloud and the [e] “handphoneme” is presented and practiced.Children are asked to write threesmall E-letters on the blackboard (seedescription of activity I-III). “Soundhunt” is only completed for the firstletter sound (in this case S).
Materials:
See Activity I-III
In continuation of the story, a letterrhyme with E/[e] is read aloud.Children are asked to write E-letterson a sheet of paper with guidinglines. “Sound hunt” is only completedfor the first letter sound (in this case S).
Materials:
Control sheet
Activity V
(6 min)
Title: “Soundduel
Letter: E
Identification of simple and conditional sounds The letter e has more than onesound. Two more pronunciations(conditional sounds, [ɛ] and [ə]) andrelated “body phonemes” arepresented. When the “bodyphonemes” have been practiced (seeactivity II), children are told to standwith their backs to each other inpairs of two. Then words includingone of the three e-pronunciations(simple or conditional) are readaloud. Children are instructed toidentify the correct sound and related “body phoneme” by themselves.Then the instructor counts downfrom three and the two childrenmust face each other while sayingthe sound and performing the related “body phoneme”. If incorrect, thechildren are told to discuss which letter sound is the correct. Correctionsare made collectively. The letter e has more than onesound. Two more pronunciations(conditional sounds [ɛ] and [ə]) andrelated “hand phonemes” arepresented and practiced (see activityII). In pairs of two, children are thentold to sit facing each other withtheir hand covering their eyes. Thenwords including one of the three e-pronunciations (simple or conditional) are read aloud. Children areinstructed to identify the correctsound and related “hand phoneme”by themselves. Then the instructorcounts down from three and the twochildren must remove their handsand face each other while saying thesound and performing the related“hand phoneme”. If incorrect, the children are told to discuss which lettersound is the correct. Corrections aremade collectively. The letter e has more than onesound. Two more pronunciations(conditional sounds) are presented.
Children have a task on the controlsheet with three encircled pictures inthe center – each picture illustrate aword containing one of the three e-pronunciations. Around the encircledpictures are task-pictures illustratingother words containing one of thethree e-pronunciations. Children aretold to draw lines from each of thetask picture to the encircled picturecontaining the same e-pronunciation.Corrections are made collectively.
Materials:
Control sheet
SESSION II
Activity Focus WM HM CG
Repetition
(2 min)
  Repetition of letter-sound couplingsand “body phonemes” for the simpleand conditional sounds for the letterS and E (practiced in session I). Repetition of letter-sound couplingsand “hand phonemes” for the simpleand conditional sounds for the letterS and E (practiced in session I). Repetition of letter-sound couplingsfor the simple and conditional soundsfor the letter S and E (practiced in session I).
Activity I-IV
(12 min)
Letter: L
See activity I-IV Activity I-IV from session I is repeatedwith L/[l] in focus. Activity I-IV from session I is repeatedwith L/[l] in focus. Activity I-IV from session I is repeatedwith L/[l] in focus.
Activity I-III
(7 min)
Letter: M
See activity I-III Activity I-III from session I is repeatedwith M/[m] in focus. Activity I-III from session I is repeatedwith M/[m] in focus. Activity I-III from session I is repeatedwith M/[m] in focus.
Activity I-III
(7 min)
Letter: Å
See activity I-III Activity I-III from session I is repeatedwith Å/[ɔ] in focus. Activity I-III from session I is repeatedwith Å/[ɔ] in focus. Activity I-III from session I is repeatedwith Å/[ɔ] in focus.
Activity VI
(7 min)
Title: “Lettersalat
Letters: S, E, L, M, Å
Coupling of single letter sounds to small words Standing in a circle each child placesfive sheets (A4) with the letters s, e, l,m and å in front of it on the floor.Words consisting of trained soundsare collectively deciphered onesound at the time. At identification ofa sound, the coupled body phonemeis performed simultaneously andsubsequently the child drags thesheet with the coupled lettertowards himself/herself. Afterdeciphering the word, the bodyphonemes and sounds areperformed in series multiple timeswith increasing speed to connect theindividual sounds and bodyphonemes into a word.
Materials:
Letter sheets (A4)
Sitting around a table each childplaces five small sheets (2 × 3 cm)with the letters s, e, l, m and å infront of it on the table. Wordsconsisting of trained sounds arecollectively deciphered one sound atthe time. At identification of a sound,the coupled hand phoneme isperformed simultaneously andsubsequently the child drags thesheet with the coupled lettertowards himself/herself. Afterdeciphering the word, the handphonemes and sounds areperformed in series multiple timeswith increasing speed to connect theindividual sounds and handphonemes into a word.
Materials:
Letter sheets (2 × 3 cm)
Children have a task on the controlsheet with five puzzle pieces labeledwith the the letters s, e, l, m and å.Below are pictures of wordsconsisting of trained sounds. Wordsare collectively deciphered one soundat the time. The child writes the lettercoupled to the sound below thepicture. After deciphering, the childreads the word aloud.
Materials:
Control sheet
SESSION III
Activity III   WM HM CG
Repetition
(5 min)
  Repetition of letter-sound couplingsand “body phonemes” for the simpleand conditional sounds for the letterS, E, L, M and Å Repetition of letter-sound couplingsand “hand phonemes” for the simpleand conditional sounds for the letterS, E, L, M and Å Repetition of letter-sound couplingsfor the simple and conditional soundsfor the letter S, E, L, M and Å
Activity VII
12 min)
Title: “RhymeTwister
Letters: s, e, l,m, å
Rhyming, letter sounds In pairs, the children are facing afoam game board (1 × 1 m) with 16fields on each side. The 16 fieldscontain eight shuffled pairs of awritten word and a rhyming picture(e.g. the word hair and a picture of achair). The written words consist oftrained letters and sounds only. Onechild has the lead and reads aloudthe written words one by one. Afterreading a word, the leading childplaces a hand or a foot on the word.The other child now has to find therhyming picture matching the wordand place a hand or a foot on it. Thiscontinues until all words are read.The game board is turned aroundand the roles of the children areswitched.
Materials:
Rhyme Twister foam game boards(1 × 1 m)
Sheets with words and pictures
In pairs, the children are facing agame board (12 × 12 cm) with 16fields on each side. The 16 fieldscontain eight shuffled pairs of awritten word and a rhyming picture(e.g. the word hair and a picture of achair). The written words consist oftrained letters and sounds only. Onechild has the lead and reads aloudthe written words one by one. Afterreading a word, the leading childplaces a thump or an index finger onthe word. The other child now has tofind the rhyming picture matchingthe word and place a thump or anindex finger on it. This continuesuntil all words are read. The gameboard is turned around and the rolesof the children are switched.
Materials:
Printed Rhyme Twister game boardswith words and pictures (12 × 12 cm)
In pairs, the children are facing agame board on control sheet A with16 fields. The 16 fields contain eightshuffled pairs of a written word and arhyming picture (e.g. the word hairand a picture of a chair). The writtenwords consist of trained letters andsounds only. One child has the leadand reads aloud the written wordsone by one. After reading a word, theleading child ticks the word. Theother child now has to find therhyming picture matching the wordand tick it. This continues until allwords are read. In control sheet B theroles of the children are switched.
Materials:
Control sheets (A and B)
Activity VIII
(14 min)
Title: “Guess-a-word
Letters: s, e, l,m, å
Coupling ofsingle lettersounds tosmall words In pairs, the children are handed outfour cards each. On each card is aword consisting of trained letters andsounds only, and a picture illustratingthe word. The children take turn in“spelling” and guessing the words.The “spelling” child performs onebody phoneme and sound at a timeof the word on his/her card. Aftereach body phoneme, the other childrepeats the body phoneme andwrites the matching letter on ablackboard cloth. After the last bodyphoneme, the guessing child has toread the word on the blackboardcloth.
Materials:
Blackboard clothes and chalk
“Guess-a-word” cards
In pairs, the children are handed outfour cards each. On each card is aword consisting of trained letters andsounds only, and a picture illustratingthe word. The children take turn in“spelling” and guessing the words.The “spelling” child performs onehand phoneme and sound at a timeof the word on his/her card. Aftereach hand phoneme, the other childrepeats the hand phoneme andwrites the matching letter on a smallblackboard. After the last handphoneme, the guessing child has toread the word on the blackboard.
Materials:
Blackboards and chalk
“Guess-a-word” cards
In pairs, one child is handed outcontrol sheet A and the other childcontrol sheet B. They are not allowedto see each other’s sheets. On eachsheet are four words consisting oftrained letters and sounds only. Eachword is illustrated by a picture. Thechildren take turn in “spelling” andguessing the words. The “spelling”child says one sound at a time of theword on his/her sheet. After eachsound, the other child repeats thesound and writes the matching letteron his/her own sheet. After the lastsound, the guessing child has to readthe word on his/her sheet.
Materials:
Control sheets (A and B)
  1. Protocol for 1 week (example: week 1)
  2. HM hand movements, WM whole-body movements, CG control group