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Table 2 The detailed types and statistical significance between different congenital heart diseases in the study population (Group A versus Group B, acyanotic versus cyanotic subtypes)

From: Value of Galectin-3 assay in children with heart failure secondary to congenital heart diseases: a prospective study

Echo Findings Group A (=45 children)
No. (%)
Group B (=30 children)
No. (%)
Test of significance p value
Congenital acyanotic heart diseases
ASD 6 (13.3 %) 4 (13.3 %) χ2(0.000) 1.0000
VSD 14 (31.1 %) 10 (33.4 %) χ2(0.04085) 0.8398
PDA 7 (15.6 %) 5 (16.7 %) χ2(0.01653) 0.8977
ASD+VSD 4 (8.9 %) 4 (13.3 %) χ2(0.05247) 0.8188
PS 8 (17.8 %) 5 (16.7 %) χ2(0.01551) 0.9009
Congenital MR 1 (2.2 %) 0 (0 %) χ2(0.6757) 0.4111
Galectin-3 (ng/dl) in acyanotic heart diseases
 Mean ± SD 20.1±4.9 5.8±4.9 T (12.382) < 0.0001*
Congenital cyanotic heart diseases
TGA 2 (4.4 %) 1 (3.3 %) χ2(0.05787) 0.8099
TOF 3 (6.7 %) 1 (3.3 %) χ2(0.01100) 0.9165
Galectin-3 (ng/dl) in cyanotic heart diseases
 Mean ± SD 19.9±5.1 6.2±4.3 T (12.114) < 0.0001*
p value P1= 0.8500 P2= 0.7380 - -
  1. *Statistical significance
  2. χ2= Chi-squared test with Yate’s continuity correction, T= student t-test
  3. P1=comparison of serum galectin-3 between acyanotic and cyanotic heart disease (in Group A)
  4. P2=comparison of serum galectin-3 between acyanotic and cyanotic heart disease (in Group B)
  5. ASD atrial septal defect, VSD ventricular septal defect, PDA patent ductus arteriosus, PS pulmonary stenosis, MR mitral regurgitation, TGA transposition of great arteries, TOF tetralogy of fallot