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Table 1 Demographic, clinical, echocardiographic findings, and laboratory investigations of the studied groups

From: Value of Galectin-3 assay in children with heart failure secondary to congenital heart diseases: a prospective study

Data Group A (No.=45) Group B
(No =30)
Group C
(No=40)
Test of significance P value
Clinico-demographic data
Sex
 Male no. (%) 24 (53.3) 17 (56.7) 20 (50) χ2(0.03) 0.95
 Female no. (%) 21 (46.7) 13 (43.3) 20 (50)
Age(years)
 Mean ± SD 3.7 ± 2.89 3.9 ± 2.01 5.1 ± 3.95 K (0.88) 0.76
 Range 0.6-9.3 0.8-9.6 0.5– 10.3   
Weight (Kg)
 Mean ± SD 8.35±3.9 8.5±3.8 9.8±4.7 K (0.95) 0.32
Height (cm)      
 Mean ± SD 65.23 ± 15.9 70.8 ±16.2 72.2±22.4 F (0.61) 0.031*
BMI (Kg/m2)      
 Mean ± SD 13.1± 2.9 14.4±2.6 16.7±2.3 F (0.60) 0.032*
HR      
 Mean ± SD 127.5±17.1 81.4±9.3 70.3±6.7 F (159.2) ≤0.001*
Post Hoc : P1=≤0.001, P2=≤0.001, P3=0.03
RR
 Mean ± SD 46.5±13.4 37.5±6.5 35±7.1 F (10.1) ≤0.001*
Post Hoc : P4≤0.001, P5=≤0.001, P6=0.36
Systolic blood pressure
 Mean ± SD 93 ± 12.1 93.3 ±9.8 87±5.4 F (2.9) 0.06
Echo Findings
Ejection fraction %
 Mean ± SD 36.9±3.9 61.1±5.2 NA T (36.8) ≤0.001*
 Range 32.8 – 40.8 55.7 – 66.9
Fractional Shortening %
 Mean ± SD 23.3±4.1 42.4±3.2 NA T (20.1) ≤0.001*
 Range 18.8 – 28.5 37.6 – 45.1
LVEDD
 Mean ± SD 32.6± 11.1 29.1±3.1 NA T (1.68) 0.0971
LVESD
 Mean ± SD 23.7± 6.7 13.7±2.3 NA T (7.85) ≤0.001*
laboratory investigations
Hb (gm/dl)
 Mean ± SD 10.1±1.4 9.9±1.4 10.1±1.3 F ( 0.39) 0.67
Leucocyte count /cm3
 Mean ± SD 13.3± 3.9 13.7±3.7 7.4±3.7 K (24.4) ≤0.001*
Platelet/cm3
 Mean ± SD 240.6±62.2 236.7±61.2 236.4±59.2 F (0.04) 0.96
Serum creatinine      
 Mean ± SD 0.59± 0.25 0.54±0.22 0.48±0.12 K (0.42) 0.0516
Galectin-3 (ng/dl)
 Mean ± SD 20.3±5.3 6.3±4.4 3.08±1.5 K (50.7) ≤0.001*
Post Hoc: P7=≤0.001, P8=≤0.001, P9=0.01
  1. *Statistical significance
  2. P1=comparison of HR between Group A and Group B, P2=comparison of HR between Group A and Group C
  3. P3=comparison of HR between Group B and Group C
  4. P4=comparison of RR between Group A and Group B, P5=comparison of RR between Group A and Group C
  5. P6=comparison of RR between Group B and Group C
  6. P7=comparison of serum galectin-3 between Group A and Group B, P8=comparison of serum galectin-3 between Group A and Group C, P9=comparison of serum galectin-3 between Group B and Control group