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Table 3 Hours of ST device use per session among school students in Kuwait and associated factors (n = 3015, row %)

From: The detrimental impacts of smart technology device overuse among school students in Kuwait: a cross-sectional survey

Variable < 1 h 1–2 h > 2 h P-value
n (%) n (%) n (%)  
Gender
 Male 613 (44.5) 430 (31.2) 335 (24.3) 0.986
 Female 707 (44.2) 503 (31.4) 725 (24.4)  
School
 Primary 426 (42.9) 278 (28.0) 290 (29.2) < 0.001
 Secondary 381 (39.2) 332 (34.2) 258 (26.6)  
 High school 513 (50.6) 323 (31.9) 177 (17.5)  
Educational region
 Asimah 233 (48.6) 143 (29.9) 103 (21.5) < 0.001
 Hawally 256 (49.1) 153 (29.4) 112 (21.5)  
 Mubarak Al-Kabeer 211 (40.8) 155 (30.0) 151 (29.2)  
 Farwaniyah 211 (44.9) 147 (31.3) 112 (23.8)  
 Jahra 257 (40.9) 135 (25.8) 132 (25.2)  
 Ahmadi 152 (32.5) 200 (42.8) 115 (24.6)  
Nationality
 Kuwaiti 1092 (42.8) 812 (31.8) 649 (25.4) < 0.001
 Non-Kuwaiti Arab 228 (53.6) 121 (28.5) 76 (17.9)  
Last semester grade
 A 520 (45.9) 346 (30.6) 266 (23.5) 0.173
 B 374 (40.4) 313 (33.8) 239 (25.8)  
 C 278 (46.5) 172 (28.8) 148 (24.7)  
 D 100 (49.0) 63 (30.9) 41 (20.1)  
 F 31 (43.7) 23 (32.4) 17 (23.9)  
Father’s education
 Secondary school or lower 99 (43.0) 81 (35.2) 50 (21.7) 0.715
 High school 248 (43.1) 185 (32.2) 142 (24.7)  
 Diploma 152 (41.9) 121 (33.3) 90 (24.8)  
 Bachelor 532 (46.3) 355 (30.9) 261 (22.7)  
 Postgraduate 139 (41.6) 111 (33.2) 84 (25.1)  
Mother’s education
 Secondary school or lower 98 (43.8) 73 (32.6) 53 (23.7) 0.013
 High school 222 (42.9) 161 (31.1) 134 (25.9)  
 Diploma 158 (36.3) 169 (38.9) 108 (24.8)  
 Bachelor 623 (47.3) 405 (30.7) 290 (22.0)  
 Postgraduate 84 (45.2) 56 (30.1) 46 (24.7)  
Family income (KD per month)
 Less than 500 22 (61.1) 9 (25.0) 5 (13.9) 0.001
 500–1000 111 (43.2) 85 (33.1) 61 (23.7)  
 1000–2000 113 (38.2) 98 (33.1) 85 (28.7)  
 More than 2000 93 (32.0) 113 (38.8) 85 (29.2)  
Weight
 Underweight 116 (49.6) 66 (28.2) 52 (22.2) 0.145
 Normal 868 (44.2) 616 (31.4) 478 (24.4)  
 Obese 311 (43.5) 218 (30.5) 186 (26.0)  
Sports on a regular basis
 Yes 636 (48.8) 391 (30.0) 276 (21.2) < 0.001
 No 675 (40.8) 537 (32.4) 444 (26.8)  
Seizures
 Yes 14 (30.4) 14 (30.4) 18 (39.1) 0.044
 No 1306 (44.5) 919 (31.3) 707 (24.1)  
Transient vision loss
 Yes 38 (30.2) 46 (36.5) 42 (33.3) 0.003
 No 1282 (45.0) 887 (31.1) 683 (23.9)  
Eye flashes
 Yes 182 (45.4) 113 (28.2) 106 (26.4) 0.299
 No 1138 (44.2) 820 (31.8) 619 (24.0)  
Eye dryness
 Yes 223 (41.4) 161 (29.9) 154 (28.6) 0.037
 No 1097 (45.0) 772 (31.6) 571 (23.4)  
Blurred vision
 Yes 261 (42.2) 179 (28.9) 179 (28.9) 0.011
 No 1059 (44.9) 754 (32.0) 546 (23.1)  
Near-sightedness
 Yes 120 (38.6) 94 (30.2) 97 (31.2) 0.009
 No 1200 (45.0) 839 (31.5) 628 (23.5)  
Eye squints
 Yes 20 (29.4) 22 (32.4) 26 (38.2) 0.011
 No 1300 (44.7) 911 (31.3) 699 (24.0)  
Headaches
 Yes 437 (41.7) 318 (30.4) 292 (27.9) 0.004
 No 883 (45.7) 615 (31.8) 433 (22.4)  
Sleep disturbances
 Yes 457 (41.7) 307 (28.0) 331 (30.2) < 0.001
 No 863 (45.8) 626 (33.2) 394 (20.9)  
Neck and shoulder pain
 Yes 485 (42.9) 351 (31.1) 294 (26.0) 0.229
 No 835 (45.2) 582 (31.5) 431 (23.3)  
Lower-back pain
 Yes 220 (39.4) 164 (29.3) 175 (31.3) < 0.001
 No 1100 (45.5) 769 (31.8) 550 (22.7)  
Loss of concentration
 Yes 300 (41.2) 200 (27.4) 229 (31.4) < 0.001
 No 1020 (45.4) 733 (32.6) 496 (22.1)  
Obesity
 Yes 150 (37.1) 129 (31.9) 125 (30.9) 0.001
 No 1170 (45.5) 804 (31.2) 600 (23.3)